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Raven robin starfire threesome. Female masturbation videos for free access. How sex changed the world episodes. Sexy women partner performance. Free realplayer mobile gay video porn. Emo girls fucked gif. Watch Búsqueda de citas barras thm PORN Videos Influence of the particle size of activated mineral carbon on the phenol and chlorophenol adsorption ; Influencia del tamano de particula de carbon mineral activado sobre la adsorcion de fenol y clorofenol. Water pollution by phenolic compounds is a problem that requires a solution since these phenolic compounds are not completely biodegradable, they accumulate through the food chains and they are quite toxic when enter in contact with living organisms. In human beings, ingestion or contact of the skin with this type of compounds produces irritation and damages mainly to the liver and kidneys. Phenols are found in wastewater from Búsqueda de citas barras thm and industry, because phenolic compounds are used as pesticides and in diverse industrial activities. The treatment of this type of water is not simple because they are generally composed of a mixture of residuals with different chemical nature A useful method for the removal Búsqueda de citas barras thm phenols is the adsorption by activated carbon, since Búsqueda de citas barras thm material has a great surface area and it can be regenerated. The adsorption process depends, among other factors, on the activated carbon characteristics. When they are modified, their capacity to remove pollutants from the water changes. The effect of activated carbon particle size on the removal of phenolic compounds has not been completely studied. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the influence of the mineral activated carbon particle here on the Búsqueda de citas barras thm and 4-chloro phenol adsorption in aqueous solution, on adsorption column system. The results of the present work indicate that the mineral activated carbon particle size has a very important influence on the adsorption of phenol and 4-chloro phenol. When the particles were smaller, the retention quantities of phenol and 4-chloro phenol increased. This behavior was related to the particle characteristics of the mineral activated carbon such as surface area and pore learn more here, while other factors such as elementary composition of the activated carbon did not influence the adsorption process. Biodegradation of 4- chlorophenol by adsorptive immobilized Alcaligenes sp. A in soil. Watch Porn Videos Forum tiny nude girl.

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Hotswingers Watch SEX Movies Sexy 2008. Preparation of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous polycysteine film and application in sensitive detection of 4- chlorophenol. After removing polystyrene template, a three-dimensionally ordered macroporous 3-DOM polycysteine film was achieved, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy measurements. The application of 3-DOM polycysteine film in electrochemical detection of 4- chlorophenol was studied. Due to ordered porous structures, the 3-DOM polycysteine film-modified GCE displayed signal enhancement effects, and enhanced the oxidation peak currents of 4- chlorophenol. As a result, a sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the detection of 4- chlorophenol , and the detection limit was 1. This new method was used to detect 4- chlorophenol in water samples, and the value of recovery was over the range from Sorption of 2- Chlorophenol from aqueous solutions by functionalized cross-linked polymers. They were morphological and chemically characterized using different techniques. The extraction capacity of the polymers was evaluated using 2- chlorophenol. Comparison of different chlorophenols degradation in aqueous solutions by gamma irradiation under reducing conditions. This confirmed that the number and position of chlorine atoms existing in the benzene ring have significant impact on dechlorination and decomposition of CPs. Photoelectron and UV absorption spectroscopy for determination of electronic configurations of negative molecular ions: Chlorophenols. The photoelectron and UV absorption spectra of p-, m-, and o- chlorophenols in the gas phase have been obtained. For each excited state a dominant transition was found. It has been shown that the energies of these singlet transitions correlate with the energy differences between the ground-state molecular orbitals participating in them. Using the UV spectra interpretation, the electronic states of molecular anions detected earlier for the same compounds by means of the resonant electron capture mass-spectrometry have been determined. The combination of high voltage pulse discharge and ozonation as an advanced oxidation technology was used to investigate the degradation of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP in water. The factors that affect the rate of degradation were discussed. The 1. The degradation of 4-CP was investigated as a function of the ozone concentration, radical scavenger and electrode distance. The rate of 4-CP degradation increases with an increase in ozone concentration and a decrease in the electrode distance from 20 mm to 10 mm. The presence of radical scavenger decreased the rate of 4-CP degradation. Herein we demonstrate a simplistic microwave assisted chemical precipitation approach regarding the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. As-prepared ZnO nanoparticles NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffractometry and scrutinized as photo-catalysts for degradation of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP under sunlight. The study substantiated that The nanocatalysts were recycled four times and still showed catalytic efficiency up to Rotating biological contractor treatment of 2-nitrophenol and 2- chlorophenol containing hazardous wastes. Rotating Biological Contactors RBCs have a number of advantages over other biological treatment systems. For example, they can provide high treatment efficiencies of activated sludge systems with much lower energy inputs. Organic shock loads are handled well because large biomass is present. No bulking, foaming, or floating of sludge occurs and sludge has good settleability and dewaterability. Another advantage of RBC systems is the minimal labor requirement for operation and maintenance. Even though RBC systems have these advantages, their acceptance was slow mainly due to operational problems with the earlier units such as shaft failures and the lack of considerable design and operation data. A review of literature shows that there is only limited information available on the wastewater treatment with RBCs. Recently, there has been considerable contributions to the knowledge on RBC technology. However, information on the treatment of organic hazardous wastes using RBCs is still very limited. This paper reports that a considerable number of studies on the biological treatment of organic hazardous compounds was sponsored by U. For example, an EPA sponsored study examined the effect of such compounds on the performance of activated sludge process. Bench-scale continuous-flow and batch units were used. Influent was settled municipal wastewater to which toxic compounds were added. No adverse effect of 2-nitrophenol on the batch system was reports. The FTIR analysis demonstrated greater content of CC moieties and less amount of carboxylate, aliphatic groups and polysaccharide-like substances in soil HAs than in aqueous HA, suggesting that the increase of aromaticity in HA was beneficial to the oxidation of phenols by permanganate. Catalytic wet air oxidation of 2- chlorophenol over sewage sludge-derived carbon-based catalysts. Quite a straight correlation was observed between the 2-CP conversion, the amount of iron leached in solution and the pH of the reaction mixture at a given reaction time, indicating a strong predominance of the homogeneous catalysis contribution. The iron leaching could be efficiently prevented when the pH of the solution was maintained at values higher than 4. Upon four successive batch CWAO experiments, using the same FeSC catalyst recovered by filtration after pH adjustment, only a very minor catalyst deactivation was observed. Preparation of three-dimensional mesoporous polymer in situ polymerization solid phase microextraction fiber and its application to the determination of seven chlorophenols. A superior solid-phase microextraction SPME fiber-coating material, three dimensional order mesoporous polymers with Ia-3d bicontinuous cubic structure 3D-OMPs was in situ coated on a stainless steel wire by solvent evaporation induced self-assembly EISA and thermo-polymerization. Poly sodiumstyrenesulphonate exerts remarkable effect against the electrode fouling induced by oxidation of chlorophenols , allowing us to record the relevant anodic response even after repeated potential cycles. Hypotheses about the role exerted by poly sodium 4-styrenesulphonate are made, on the basis of evidences provided by several techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrochemical microgravimetry and atomic force microscopy. Thanks to the fact that different chlorophenols show differences in the voltammetric responses, depending on number and position of the chloro substituents on the aromatic ring, applications of the modified electrode in the analysis of mixtures of chlorinated phenols are possible. Rapid and effective decontamination of chlorophenol -contaminated soil by sorption into commercial polymers: concept demonstration and process modeling. Solid phase extraction performed with commercial polymer beads to treat soil contaminated by chlorophenols 4- chlorophenol , 2,4-dichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol as single compounds and in a mixture has been investigated in this study. Soil-water-polymer partition tests were conducted to determine the relative affinities of single compounds in soil-water and polymer-water pairs. Subsequent soil extraction tests were performed with Hytrel , the polymer showing the highest affinity for the tested chlorophenols. Factors that were examined were polymer type, moisture content, and contamination level. A dynamic model characterizing the rate and extent of decontamination was also formulated, calibrated and validated with the experimental data. The proposed model, based on the simplified approach of "lumped parameters" for the mass transfer coefficients, provided very good predictions of the experimental data for the absorptive removal of contaminants from soil at different individual solute levels. Oxidative degradation of chlorophenol derivatives promoted by microwaves or power ultrasound: a mechanism investigation. Phenols are the most common pollutants in industrial wastewaters particularly from oil refineries, resin manufacture, and coal processing. Both techniques may strongly promote advanced oxidation processes AOPs. The present study aimed to shed light on the effect and mechanism of US- and MW-promoted oxidative degradation of chlorophenols ; 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4-D , a pesticide widespread in the environment, was chosen as the model compound. All these reactions were monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS analysis and compared with the classical Fenton reaction in water under magnetic stirring. The same set of treatments was also applied to 2,4-dichlorophenol 2,4-DCP and phenol, the first two products that occur a step down in the degradation sequence. Fenton and Fenton-like reagents were employed at the lowest active concentration. The effects of US and MW irradiation were investigated and compared with those of conventional treatments. Detailed mechanisms of Fenton-type reactions were suggested for 2,4-D, 2,4-DCP, and phenol, underlining the principal degradation products identified. MW-promoted degradation under solvent-free conditions with solid Fenton-like reagents viz. SPC is extremely efficient and mainly follows pyrolytic pathways. Power US strongly accelerates the degradation of 2,4-D in water through a rapid generation of highly reactive radicals; it does not lead to the formation of more toxic dimers. We show that US and MW enhance the oxidative degradation of 2,4-D and that a considerable saving of oxidants and cutting down of. Bioremediation of 2- chlorophenol containing wastewater by aerobic granules-kinetics and toxicity. The organic loading rate OLR was increased from 6. The specific cell growth rate was found to be 0. Enhanced chlorophenol sorption of soils by rice-straw-ash amendment. Rice-straw burning is a common post-harvest practice on rice paddy land, which results in the accumulation of rice-straw ash RSA in paddy soil. The results showed that the sorption of 3-CP to RSA proceeds through a surface reaction rather than through partitioning and that the neutral form of 3-CP is preferentially sorbed to the surface when compared to the deprotonated anionic form of 3-CP. Thus, RSA contributed more to the total sorption of the soils than other major components in the soils. This may be attributed to the competition of organic matter or other soil components for the surface binding sites of RSA. Enhanced degradation of p- chlorophenol in a novel pulsed high voltage discharge reactor. The yields of active specie such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical were all enhanced in a novel discharge reactor. In the reactor, the original formation rate of hydroxyl radical was 2. Ozone was formed in gas-phase and was transferred into the liquid. The characteristic of mass transfer was better in the novel reactor than that in the contrast reactor, which caused much higher ozone concentration in liquid. The dissociation of hydrogen peroxide was more evident in the former, which promoted the formations of hydroxyl radical. The p- chlorophenol 4-CP degradation was also enhanced. Most of the ozone transferred into the liquid and hydrogen peroxide generated by discharge could be utilized by the degradation process of 4-CP. Organic acids such as formic, acetic, oxalic, propanoic and maleic acid were generated and free chloride ions were released in the degradation process. With the formation of organic acid, the pH was decreased and the conductivity was increased. Using different rations of sludge extracts and supernate from 4- Chlorophenol 4-CP simulated wastewater's excess sludge after centrifugation to cultivate the Chlorella vulgaris to achieve the goal of excess sludge utilization together with chlorella cultivating. Number of algal cells, Chlorophyll, enzyme activity, oil and water total nitrogen TN , total phosphorus TP , total organic carbon TOC , toxicity index were investigated. Sludge extracts could promote the proliferation of algae, but were not conducive to the synthesis of chlorophyll. The quantity of SOD in per cell showed Chlorella vulgaris gave a positive response via stimulation from toxicant in sludge extracts and supernate. The best time for collecting chlorella vulgaris was the fifth day of cultivation, taking neutral oil accumulation as the evaluating indicator for its utilization combined with the removal of supplies and toxicity. Full Text Available Parameter identification plays a crucial role for simulating and using model. This paper firstly carried out the sensitivity analysis of the 2- chlorophenol oxidation model in supercritical water using the Monte Carlo method. Then, to address the nonlinearity of the model, two improved differential search DS algorithms were proposed to carry out the parameter identification of the model. One strategy is to adopt the Latin hypercube sampling method to replace the uniform distribution of initial population; the other is to combine DS with simplex method. The results of sensitivity analysis reveal the sensitivity and the degree of difficulty identified for every model parameter. Furthermore, the posteriori probability distribution of parameters and the collaborative relationship between any two parameters can be obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the improved algorithms, the optimization performance of improved DS in kinetic parameter estimation is studied and compared with that of the basic DS algorithm, differential evolution, artificial bee colony optimization, and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. And the experimental results demonstrate that the DS with the Latin hypercube sampling method does not present better performance, while the hybrid methods have the advantages of strong global search ability and local search ability and are more effective than the other algorithms. Physical and biological parameters that determine the fate of p- chlorophenol in laboratory test systems. Shake-flask and microcosm studies were conducted to determine the fate of para- chlorophenol p-CP in water and sediment systems and the role of sediment and nonsediment surfaces in the biodegradation process. Biodegradation of p-CP in estuarine water samples in shake flasks was slow over incubation periods of h. The addition of detrital sediment resulted in immediate and rapid degradation evidence by the production of 14 CO 2 from [ 14 C]p-CP. The addition of sterile sediment, glass beads, or sand resulted in approximately four to six times more CO 2 evolution than observed in the water alone. Densities of p-CP-degrading bacteria associated with the detrital sediment were times greater than those enumerated in water. Bacteria in the water and associated with the sediment after preexposure of both water and sediment of p-CP demonstrated enhanced biodegradation. In some microcosms, p-CP was degraded completely in the top 1. Sediment reworking activities by benthic invertebrates from one site were sufficient to mix p-CP deep into the sediment bed faster than biodegradation or molecular diffusion. Electron trapping experiments demonstrated that photogenerated electrons are the responsible for the reductive dechlorinaton of 4- chlorophenol to phenol. With the optimal scavengers, the conversion efficiency of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP achieved Microrespirometric determination of the effectiveness factor and biodegradation kinetics of aerobic granules degrading 4- chlorophenol as the sole carbon source. The experimental model was an aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor SBR degrading synthetic wastewater containing 4- chlorophenol as the sole carbon source. After 15 days of acclimation, the SBR process degraded 4- chlorophenol at a removal rate of up to 0. The microrespirometric method consisted of injecting pulses of 4- chlorophenol into the 24 wells of a microreactor system containing the SBR samples. From the respirograms obtained, the following five kinetic parameters were successfully determined during reactor operation: i Maximum specific oxygen uptake rate, ii substrate affinity constant, iii substrate inhibition constant, iv maximum specific growth rate, and v cell growth yield. Microrespirometry tests using granules and disaggregated granules allowed for the determination of apparent and intrinsic parameters, which in turn enabled the determination of the effectiveness factor of the granular sludge. It was concluded that this new high-throughput method has the potential to elucidate the complex biological and physicochemical processes of aerobic granular biosystems. Enhanced aerobic degradation of 4- chlorophenol with iron-nickel nanoparticles. This study provides new insight into the role of bimetallic nickel on enhancing removal of organic pollutants with nZVI. Amorphous TiO2 doped with carbon for visible light photodegradation of rhodamine B and 4- chlorophenol. In addition, the most active sample is characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, UV—vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer and luminescence spectrometer. The results show that the most active sample with oxygenic groups has a narrower bandgap and lower recombination of electron—hole, due to the carbon doping and phase of amorphous. Effective photodegradation capability and stability of rhodamine B and colorless 4- chlorophenol are verified by photocatalytic tests under visible light irradiation. A possible mechanism of amorphous TiO 2 doped with carbon for visible light photocatalysis is proposed. The findings of this paper will provide new insights to design visible light-induced photocatalyst based on amorphous TiO 2 for organic removal. Piezo-catalysis was first used to degrade a nondye pollutant, 4- chlorophenol 4-CP. It was found that the piezoelectric potential from the deformation could not only successfully degrade 4- chlorophenol but also effectively dechlorinate it at the same time, and five kinds of dechlorinated intermediates, hydroquinone, benzoquinone, phenol, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexanol, were determined. This is the first sample of piezo-dechlorination. These results indicated that the piezo-catalysis was an emerging and effective advanced oxidation technology for degradation and dechlorination of organic pollutants. Chronic exposure to chlorophenol related compounds in the pesticide production workplace and lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Chlorophenols CPs and related phenoxyacetic acids PAs are pesticide groups contaminated with highly toxic 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin TCDD during production. PAs and CPs exposure is associated with risk of cancer, but the situation regarding lung cancer has not been clearly defined. We proposed a meta-analysis of published researches to evaluate relationship between chronic exposure to PAs and CPs in pesticide production workplaces and the risk of lung cancer. We used random or fixed-effects models, Egger test, funnel plot and meta regression in our analysis. Five papers with six reports were included in the final analysis. The standardized mortality rate for lung cancer from the random model was 1. Our findings has strengthen the evidence of lung cancer from chronic exposure to chlorophenol related compounds PAs, CPs. Room-temperature Pd-catalyzed C-H chlorination by weak coordination: one-pot synthesis of 2- chlorophenols with excellent regioselectivity. A room-temperature Pd II -catalyzed regioselective chlorination reaction has been developed for a facile one-pot synthesis of a broad range of 2- chlorophenols. The reaction demonstrates an excellent regioselectivity and reactivity for C-H chlorination. This reaction represents one of the rare examples of mild C-H functionalization at ambient temperature. Toxicity assessment of 4- chlorophenol to aerobic granular sludge and its interaction with extracellular polymeric substances. Correspondingly, the respirometric activities of heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria of aerobic granular sludge were significantly inhibited in the presence of 4-CP. Moreover, the main components of extracellular polymeric substances EPS including polysaccharides and proteins increased from Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix 3D-EEM fluorescence spectroscopy further showed that the intensities of EPS samples were obviously quenched with the increased of 4-CP concentrations. To be more detailed, synchronous fluorescence spectra indicated that the interaction between EPS and 4-CP was mainly caused by tryptophan residues. IV Congreso de Educacion para el Desarrollo, octubre, Encuentro: Feminismos en la agenda del desarrollo. Castellano Euskara English. Directorio de Hegoa. Memorias de actividades. Intranet Extranet. Always a favorite! Another recipe from Mum's scribbled cookery notes. These Apple Blondie Bars are a perfect Autumn dessert that mixes apple pie and blondies. Categorías : Software de Google Computación distribuida. Espacios de nombres Artículo Discusión. Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. 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Fuck airplane Watch SEX Movies Sexadressen eindhoven. Podríamos usarlas para capturar información de calificaciones, calendarios de actividades y todo lo que podamos imaginar. En este artículo repasamos las novedades que incorpora Word a fecha de marzo de Como sabeís, ahora cada pocos meses se van incorporando mejoras a Word mediante actualizaciones en línea, así aunque el nombre del programa sigue siendo Word , realmente incorpora bastantes cosas nuevas respecto a la versión que apareció en Ir al artículo.. También dispone de autoevaluaciones en cada unidad. En el curso tienes 43 vídeos que cubren todos los temas importantes del curso. Es un curso totalmente gratis, puedes acceder a él sin necesidad de registrarte. Hemos puesto mucho esfuerzo e ilusión en este curso que esperamos te sirva para aprender Illustrator con facilidad. Ir al curso de Illustrator CC.. Todos los derechos reservados. Prohibida la reproducción por cualquier medio. 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Modeling of adsorption isotherms of phenol and chlorophenols onto granular activated carbon. Part I. Two-parameter models and equations allowing determination of thermodynamic parameters. The adsorption equilibrium isotherms of five phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions onto granular activated carbon GAC were studied and modeled. To predict the adsorption isotherms and to determine the characteristic parameters for process design, seven isotherm models: Langmuir five linear forms , Freundlich, Elovich, Temkin, Fowler-Guggenheim, Kiselev, and Hill-de Boer models were applied to experimental data. Adsorption isotherms modeling shows that the interaction of phenolic compounds with activated carbon surface is localized monolayer adsorption , that is adsorbed molecules are adsorbed at definite, localized sites. Each site can accommodate only one molecule. The interaction among adsorbed molecules is repulsive and there is no association between them, adsorption is carried out on energetically different sites and is an exothermic process. Uptake of phenols increases in the order Ph chlorophenols , it seems that the magnitude of adsorption is directly proportional to their degree of chlorination. An adsorption diffusion model for removal of para- chlorophenol by activated carbon derived from bituminous coal. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the adsorptive removal and diffusion mechanism of para- chlorophenol p-CP onto Calgon Filtrasorb F activated carbon. The external mass transfer resistance is negligible in the adsorption process carried out under different conditions in batch operation. Intraparticle diffusion model plots were used to correlate the batch p-CP adsorption data; three distinct linear sections were obtained for every batch operation. The textural properties of F activated carbon showed that it has a large portion of supermicropores, which is comparable to the size of the p-CP molecules. Due to the stronger interactions between p-CP molecules and F micropores, p-CP molecules predominantly diffused and occupied active sites in micropore region by hopping mechanism, and eventually followed by a slow filling of mesopores and micropores. This hypothesis is proven by the excellent agreement of the intraparticle diffusion model plots and the textural properties of F activated carbon. Copyright Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Influence of the particle size of activated mineral carbon on the phenol and chlorophenol adsorption. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proses penjerapan mengikuti persamaan Freundlich dan bersifat reversibel sebagian. Kemampuan zeolit untuk menjerap p-khlorofenol meningkat dengan semakin rendahnya pH. ABSTRACT The aim of this research is to study the characteristics of zeolit to adsorb p- chlorophenol from wastewater in a batch reactor at 30 oC and atmospheric conditions. The experimental results show that the adsorbtion process is partially reversible and fits with Freundlich Equation. The performance of zeolit to adsorb p- chlorophenol increases with decreasing pH. The concentration of adsorbed p- chlorophenol is about 8. Adsorption Isotherms of Phenol and 4- Chlorophenol on Petroleum Asphaltenes Adsorption du phénol et du 4-chlorophénol sur les asphaltènes pétroliers. Full Text Available The adsorption isotherms for phenol and 4- chlorophenol from water onto asphaltenes flocculated in bulk and asphaltenes deposited on silica were established by frontal analysis chromatography at , , , and K. The adsorption was more important with asphaltenes flocculated in bulk and corresponded to a Freundlich isotherm mechanism. The high adsorbed amount of phenols suggests possible migration of phenols through the loose asphaltene structure. Isotherms observed with the silica coated by asphaltenes showed that adsorption occurs in two stages corresponding probably to two different organizations of solute molecules at the surface. Les isothermes d' adsorption du phénol et du 4-chlorophénol en solution dans l'eau sur des asphaltènes floculés en masse et sur des asphaltènes déposés sur de la silice ont été déterminés par analyse chromatographique frontale à , , et K. L' adsorption sur des asphaltènes floculés en masse était la plus importante avec des isothermes correspondant à un mécanisme de Freundlich. La quantité élevée de phénols adsorbés suggère une migration possible des molécules du phénol à travers la structure peu compacte des asphaltènes. Les isothermes observés dans le cas de silice tapissée d'asphaltènes ont montré que l' adsorption se produit en deux étapes correspondant probablement à deux organisations différentes des molécules de soluté à la surface. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorophenols in earthworms, in relation to bioavailability in soil. The acute toxicity of five chlorophenols for two earthworm species was determined in two sandy soils differing in organic matter content and the results were compared with adsorption data. Adsorption increased with increasing organic matter content of the soils, but for tetra- and pentachlorophenol was also influenced by soil pH. Earthworm toxicity was significantly higher in the soil with a low level of organic matter. This difference disappeared when LC50 values were recalculated to concentrations in soil solution using adsorption data. Eisenia fetida andrei showed LC50 values lower than those of Lumbricus rubellus although bioaccumulation was generally higher in the latter species. Toxicity and bioaccumulation based on soil solution concentrations increased with increasing lipophilicity of the chlorophenols. The present results indicate that the toxicity and bioaccumulation and therefore the bioavailability of chlorophenols in soil to earthworms are dependent on the concentration in soil solution and can be predicted on the basis of adsorption data. Both the toxicity of and bioaccumulation data on chlorophenols in earthworms demonstrated surprisingly good agreement with those on chlorophenols in fish. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse. E-mail: xlchai mail. The adsorption of phenol, 2- chlorophenol , 4- chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2- chlorophenol , 4- chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic. Presence of chlorophenols in drinking water could be hazardous to human health. Optimization and computational modeling of experimental conditions of adsorption lead to understanding the mechanisms of this process and to creating the efficient experimental equipment. In the current study, we investigated multi-walled carbon nanotubes by means of density functional theory DFT approach. This is applied to study selected types of interactions between six solvents, five types of nanotubes, and Caracterización del proceso de adsorción de 3-cloro fenol desde solución acuosa sobre carbon activado por calorimetria de inmersión Characterization of 3- chlorophenol adsorption process from aqueous solution on activated carbon by immersion calorimetry. Full Text Available The immersion enthalpy of activated carbon in 3- chlorophenol solutions, of mg L-1, is determined at different pH values between 3 and 11 with results between The 3- chlorophenol adsorbed quantities on the activated carbon during the calorimetric experience, are between 1. The 3- chlorophenol adsorbed quantity and the immersion enthalpy decrease by increasing of the pH solution, while increasing the adsorbed quantity increases the immersion enthalpy value. Full Text Available In this study, graphene oxide was used as a nanostructured adsorbent with properties supposedly better than other common adsorbents to remove 4- chlorophenol from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, graphene oxide was initially synthesized using the Hummer's method and x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were employed to identify its morphology and structure. The variables involved in the absorption process including 4- chlorophenol initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, and pH were investigated based on the one-factor-at-a-time method. It was found that the adsorption process reached equilibrium in 20 minutes. A dosage of 0. The adsorption isotherm was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model and the values for R2 and RL were recorded as 0. Being a low cost and highly efficient process, the adsorption process using graphene oxide adsorbent may be recommended for the reduction and elimination of pollutants in the environment, especially those in aqueous solutions. Removal of 4- chlorophenol from synthetic wastewater by the granulated graphene oxide nano particles. Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: 4- chlorophenols one of the most common pollutants in wastewater is generated from the chemical and petrochemical industries. It is due to the presence of chloride and benzene ring is resistant to biodegradation. In this study, the use of granulated graphene oxide nano particles as an adsorbent nanostructure with better properties than other adsorbents for Removal of 4- chlorophenol from aqueous solution were investigated Methods: This research was implemented during the year where the Granules of Graphene oxide nanoparticles were prepared using sodium silicate and X-ray diffraction techniques and electron microscope were used to identify the morphology and structure of the adsorbent of. Finally, the data fitness with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were showed. Results: Adsorption process reached to equilibrium after 20 minutes. Conclusion: Absorbed process by the granules of Graphene oxide nanoparticles is low-cost high-efficiency and it could used to reduce and eliminate environmental pollutants particularly aqueous solutions. Full Text Available Application of saw dust for the removal of an anionic dye, tartrazine, from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The experiments were carried out in batch mode. Effect of the parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye was studied. Maximum adsorption of dye was achieved at pH 3. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin—Radushkevich isotherm models. The Langmuir adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is found to be 4. Kinetic modeling of the process of removal was carried out and the process of removal was found to follow a pseudo second order model and the value of rate constant for adsorption process was calculated as 2. Full Text Available The phenolic compounds are known as priority pollutants, even in low concentrations, as a result of their toxicity and non-biodegradability. For this reason, strict standards have been established for them. In addition, chlorophenols are placed in the 38th to 43th in highest priority order of toxic pollutants. As a consequence, contaminated water or wastewaters with phenolic compounds have to be treated before discharging into the receiving water. Analysis of the response surface quadratic model signified that the experiments are accurate and the model is highly significant. Moreover, the synthetic adsorbent is highly efficient in removing of 4- chlorophenol. Catalytic wet air oxidation of chlorophenols over supported ruthenium catalysts. Among the investigated noble metals, Ru appeared to be the best to promote the CWAO of CPs as far as incipient-wetness impregnation was used to prepare all the catalysts. The position of the chlorine substitution on the aromatic ring was also shown to have a significant effect on the CP reactivity in the CWAO over 3 wt. One reason could be the higher adsorption of 2-CP on the catalyst surface. Further investigations suggested that 3 wt. Additionally, the conversion of 2-CP was demonstrated to increase with the initial pH of the 2-CP solution. The dechlorination reaction is promoted at higher pH. In all cases, the adsorption of the reactants and the reaction intermediates was shown to play a major role. All parameters that would control the molecule speciation in solution or the catalyst surface properties would have a key effect. Sorption of chlorophenols from aqueous solution by granular activated carbon, filter coal, pine and hardwood. Wood and coal, as low-cost sorbents, have been evaluated as an alternative to commercial granular activated carbon GAC for chlorophenol removal. The data fitted a pseudo-second-order model. Sorption capacity data showed that GAC had a high sorption capacity mg g -1 compared with other sorbents 3. However, wood and coal had a greater sorption capacity per unit surface area than GAC. Sorption equilibrium data was best predicted using a Freundlich adsorption model. The sorption capacity for all sorbents was 2- chlorophenol coal than the other sorbents. The results showed that pine, hardwood and filter coal can be used as sorbent materials for the removal of chlorophenol from water; however, kinetic considerations may limit the application of filter coal. Reductive dehalogenation of chlorophenols by Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB Reductive dehalogenation of chlorophenols has been reported in undefined anaerobic cultures but never before in an anaerobic pure culture. We found that the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1 reductively dehalogenates pentachlorophenol PCP and other chlorophenols. The maximum rate of PCP dechlorination observed was 54 mu mol of Cl- h-1 g of protein Dehalogenation was catalyzed by living cells, and formate served as a required electron donor. Generally, more highly chlorinated phenol congeners were more readily dechlorinated, and 3- chlorophenol was not dehalogenated. A novel mixed-mode adsorbent was prepared by functionalizing silica with tris 2-aminoethyl amine and 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde as the main mixed-mode scaffold due to the presence of the plentiful amino groups and benzene rings in their molecules. The adsorption mechanism was probed with acidic, natural and basic compounds, and the mixed hydrophobic and ion-exchange interactions were found to be responsible for the adsorption of analytes. The suitability of dispersive solid-phase extraction was demonstrated in the determination of chlorophenols in environmental water. Several parameters, including sample pH, desorption solvent, ionic strength, adsorbent dose, and extraction time were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the proposed dispersive solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography showed good linearity range and acceptable limits of detection 0. Notably, the higher extraction recoveries The proposed method might be potentially applied in the determination of trace chlorophenols in real water samples. KGaA, Weinheim. Full Text Available Background and purpose: The 2- chlorophenol 2-CP and 4- chlorophenol 4-CP are phenolic compounds which may have adverse effects on human and environment. Therefore, removing these compounds from water and wastewater is necessary. Then it was treated with 0. Results: The solute removed increases as contact time rises. The equilibrium time for 2-CP and 4-CP is 90 and 75, respectively. The removal efficiency of 4-CP is more than 2-CP. An increase in initial concentration of both compounds can lead to decrease of their removal efficiency. The optimum pH to remove both compounds is 5. The equilibrium data matched best on Freundlich isotherm and the adsorption kinetic model follows pseudo-second model. Conclusion: The results indicated that Azolla is an effective adsorbent for removing 2-CP and 4-CP from water and wastewater. Of the system chrome hexavalent chlorophenol. The effect is analyzed in order to determine the operation conditions to reach the highest degradation levels possible. The analyzed variables were pH, concentration of catalyst TiO 2 , time of recirculation and the relation of initial concentrations among polluting agents. The factor that most influences the levels of removal reached is the pH, which has a different effect for each of the pollutants. This implies that, theoretically, you cannot adopt a unique group of operation parameters to favor the degradation of both however, in the practice; high levels of degradation of both pollutants are obtained in the optimal point of operation of the chrome. It is also observed that the catalyst concentration does not influence the degradation of the polluting agents significantly, at least for the initial concentrations studied. The recirculation time is closely related to the kinetics of degradation of each polluting agent. Elevated degradation levels are reached in a short time for 4- chlorophenol , while more prolonged recirculation times are required for hexavalent chromium. The relation of initial concentrations of the polluting agents also exerts an opposite effect on the degradation levels reached for each polluting agent; the hexavalent chromium reduction is favored with high initial concentrations of 4- chlorophenol , whereas the oxidation of 4- chlorophenol is favored with high initial hexavalent chromium concentrations, which suggests some synergy between the oxidation-reduction reactions of 4- chlorophenol and hexavalent chromium. Chlorinated organic compounds, especially chlorophenols are well-known water priority pollutant family due to their toxicity and potential health hazard. As biological treatment processes for the degradation of chlorinated phenols have not been effective, various technologies and processes such as activated carbon adsorption [1], chemical oxidation[2], have been conventionally attempted for phenolic waster treatment. Recently, advanced oxidation processes AOPs have attracted a great deal of attention for treatment of phenolic wastewater, among these chemical oxidation ultraviolet UV oxidation system[3], anodic oxidation and indirect electro-oxidation have been widely studied[4]. Though a number of researchers worked on the degradation of chlorophenol by UV radiation or electrochemical processes, there are few reports on both methods for organic wastewater treatment. If these two processes can operate in harmony, the degradation efficiency would be enhanced. In vitro and in silico investigations of the binding interactions between chlorophenols and trypsin. Wang, Yan-Qing, E-mail: wyqing76 Since there still lacks studies on molecular interactions of chlorophenols with trypsin, one major binding target of many exogenous environmental pollutants, the binding interactions between five chlorophenols , 2-CP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TCP and PCP and trypsin were characterized by the combination of multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. The chlorophenols bind at the one main site of trypsin and the binding induces the changes of microenvironment and global conformations of trypsin. Our results offer insights into the binding mechanism of chlorophenols with trypsin and provide important information for possible toxicity risk of chlorophenols to human health. Catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and 4- chlorophenol in the presence of modified activated carbons. The objective of this research was to examine the heterogeneous catalytic decomposition of H 2 O 2 and 4- chlorophenol 4-CP in the presence of activated carbons modified with chemical pretreatments. This is my grandmother's recipe, which my whole family loves. Soft, chewy and dense blondie brownies with rich undertones of caramel, vanilla and toffee. A simple, one-bowl recipe for whenever you need a quick dessert!.

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Caiyna Sex Watch PORN Movies Xxxxvideoes Wwwcom. The pH of solutions and pH at point of zero charge of the solid play an important role in the adsorption process. Predicting adsorptive removal of chlorophenol from aqueous solution using artificial intelligence based modeling approaches. The research aims to develop artificial intelligence AI -based model to predict the adsorptive removal of 2- chlorophenol CP in aqueous solution by coconut shell carbon CSC using four operational variables pH of solution, adsorbate concentration, temperature, and contact time , and to investigate their effects on the adsorption process. Accordingly, based on a factorial design, batch experiments were conducted. Five nonlinear models were constructed to predict the adsorptive removal of CP in aqueous solution by CSC using four variables as input. Performances of the constructed models were evaluated and compared using statistical criteria. BDS statistics revealed strong nonlinearity in experimental data. Performance of all the models constructed here was satisfactory. Radial basis function network RBFN and multilayer perceptron network MLPN models performed better than generalized regression neural network, support vector machines, and gene expression programming models. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the contact time had highest effect on adsorption followed by the solution pH, temperature, and CP concentration. The study concluded that all the models constructed here were capable of capturing the nonlinearity in data. Adsorption and bio-sorption of nickel ions and reuse for 2- chlorophenol catalytic ozonation oxidation degradation from water. The catalyst was directly prepared by the reuse of fly ash and sawdust after saturated adsorption of nickel ions from wastewater, which was proposed as an efficient and economic approach. The adsorption of nickel ions by fly ash and sawdust from aqueous solution was also investigated in this study. The results obtained from the experiments indicated that adsorption of nickel ions by fly ash and biomass sawdust could be well described by Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. The catalytic performance of catalyst was studied in terms of the effect of time, liquid—solid ratio and pH on 2- chlorophenol ozonation degradation. Ma, Wei, E-mail: chmawv yahoo. Modeling of adsorption isotherms of phenol and chlorophenols onto granular activated carbon. Part I. Two-parameter models and equations allowing determination of thermodynamic parameters. The adsorption equilibrium isotherms of five phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions onto granular activated carbon GAC were studied and modeled. To predict the adsorption isotherms and to determine the characteristic parameters for process design, seven isotherm models: Langmuir five linear forms , Freundlich, Elovich, Temkin, Fowler-Guggenheim, Kiselev, and Hill-de Boer models were applied to experimental data. Adsorption isotherms modeling shows that the interaction of phenolic compounds with activated carbon surface is localized monolayer adsorption , that is adsorbed molecules are adsorbed at definite, localized sites. Each site can accommodate only one molecule. The interaction among adsorbed molecules is repulsive and there is no association between them, adsorption is carried out on energetically different sites and is an exothermic process. Uptake of phenols increases in the order Ph chlorophenols , it seems that the magnitude of adsorption is directly proportional to their degree of chlorination. An adsorption diffusion model for removal of para- chlorophenol by activated carbon derived from bituminous coal. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the adsorptive removal and diffusion mechanism of para- chlorophenol p-CP onto Calgon Filtrasorb F activated carbon. The external mass transfer resistance is negligible in the adsorption process carried out under different conditions in batch operation. Intraparticle diffusion model plots were used to correlate the batch p-CP adsorption data; three distinct linear sections were obtained for every batch operation. The textural properties of F activated carbon showed that it has a large portion of supermicropores, which is comparable to the size of the p-CP molecules. Due to the stronger interactions between p-CP molecules and F micropores, p-CP molecules predominantly diffused and occupied active sites in micropore region by hopping mechanism, and eventually followed by a slow filling of mesopores and micropores. This hypothesis is proven by the excellent agreement of the intraparticle diffusion model plots and the textural properties of F activated carbon. Copyright Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Influence of the particle size of activated mineral carbon on the phenol and chlorophenol adsorption. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proses penjerapan mengikuti persamaan Freundlich dan bersifat reversibel sebagian. Kemampuan zeolit untuk menjerap p-khlorofenol meningkat dengan semakin rendahnya pH. ABSTRACT The aim of this research is to study the characteristics of zeolit to adsorb p- chlorophenol from wastewater in a batch reactor at 30 oC and atmospheric conditions. The experimental results show that the adsorbtion process is partially reversible and fits with Freundlich Equation. The performance of zeolit to adsorb p- chlorophenol increases with decreasing pH. The concentration of adsorbed p- chlorophenol is about 8. Adsorption Isotherms of Phenol and 4- Chlorophenol on Petroleum Asphaltenes Adsorption du phénol et du 4-chlorophénol sur les asphaltènes pétroliers. Full Text Available The adsorption isotherms for phenol and 4- chlorophenol from water onto asphaltenes flocculated in bulk and asphaltenes deposited on silica were established by frontal analysis chromatography at , , , and K. The adsorption was more important with asphaltenes flocculated in bulk and corresponded to a Freundlich isotherm mechanism. The high adsorbed amount of phenols suggests possible migration of phenols through the loose asphaltene structure. Isotherms observed with the silica coated by asphaltenes showed that adsorption occurs in two stages corresponding probably to two different organizations of solute molecules at the surface. Les isothermes d' adsorption du phénol et du 4-chlorophénol en solution dans l'eau sur des asphaltènes floculés en masse et sur des asphaltènes déposés sur de la silice ont été déterminés par analyse chromatographique frontale à , , et K. L' adsorption sur des asphaltènes floculés en masse était la plus importante avec des isothermes correspondant à un mécanisme de Freundlich. La quantité élevée de phénols adsorbés suggère une migration possible des molécules du phénol à travers la structure peu compacte des asphaltènes. Les isothermes observés dans le cas de silice tapissée d'asphaltènes ont montré que l' adsorption se produit en deux étapes correspondant probablement à deux organisations différentes des molécules de soluté à la surface. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorophenols in earthworms, in relation to bioavailability in soil. The acute toxicity of five chlorophenols for two earthworm species was determined in two sandy soils differing in organic matter content and the results were compared with adsorption data. Adsorption increased with increasing organic matter content of the soils, but for tetra- and pentachlorophenol was also influenced by soil pH. Earthworm toxicity was significantly higher in the soil with a low level of organic matter. This difference disappeared when LC50 values were recalculated to concentrations in soil solution using adsorption data. Eisenia fetida andrei showed LC50 values lower than those of Lumbricus rubellus although bioaccumulation was generally higher in the latter species. Toxicity and bioaccumulation based on soil solution concentrations increased with increasing lipophilicity of the chlorophenols. The present results indicate that the toxicity and bioaccumulation and therefore the bioavailability of chlorophenols in soil to earthworms are dependent on the concentration in soil solution and can be predicted on the basis of adsorption data. Both the toxicity of and bioaccumulation data on chlorophenols in earthworms demonstrated surprisingly good agreement with those on chlorophenols in fish. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse. E-mail: xlchai mail. The adsorption of phenol, 2- chlorophenol , 4- chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2- chlorophenol , 4- chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic. Presence of chlorophenols in drinking water could be hazardous to human health. Optimization and computational modeling of experimental conditions of adsorption lead to understanding the mechanisms of this process and to creating the efficient experimental equipment. In the current study, we investigated multi-walled carbon nanotubes by means of density functional theory DFT approach. This is applied to study selected types of interactions between six solvents, five types of nanotubes, and Caracterización del proceso de adsorción de 3-cloro fenol desde solución acuosa sobre carbon activado por calorimetria de inmersión Characterization of 3- chlorophenol adsorption process from aqueous solution on activated carbon by immersion calorimetry. Full Text Available The immersion enthalpy of activated carbon in 3- chlorophenol solutions, of mg L-1, is determined at different pH values between 3 and 11 with results between The 3- chlorophenol adsorbed quantities on the activated carbon during the calorimetric experience, are between 1. The 3- chlorophenol adsorbed quantity and the immersion enthalpy decrease by increasing of the pH solution, while increasing the adsorbed quantity increases the immersion enthalpy value. Full Text Available In this study, graphene oxide was used as a nanostructured adsorbent with properties supposedly better than other common adsorbents to remove 4- chlorophenol from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, graphene oxide was initially synthesized using the Hummer's method and x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were employed to identify its morphology and structure. The variables involved in the absorption process including 4- chlorophenol initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, and pH were investigated based on the one-factor-at-a-time method. It was found that the adsorption process reached equilibrium in 20 minutes. A dosage of 0. The adsorption isotherm was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model and the values for R2 and RL were recorded as 0. Being a low cost and highly efficient process, the adsorption process using graphene oxide adsorbent may be recommended for the reduction and elimination of pollutants in the environment, especially those in aqueous solutions. Removal of 4- chlorophenol from synthetic wastewater by the granulated graphene oxide nano particles. Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: 4- chlorophenols one of the most common pollutants in wastewater is generated from the chemical and petrochemical industries. It is due to the presence of chloride and benzene ring is resistant to biodegradation. In this study, the use of granulated graphene oxide nano particles as an adsorbent nanostructure with better properties than other adsorbents for Removal of 4- chlorophenol from aqueous solution were investigated Methods: This research was implemented during the year where the Granules of Graphene oxide nanoparticles were prepared using sodium silicate and X-ray diffraction techniques and electron microscope were used to identify the morphology and structure of the adsorbent of. Finally, the data fitness with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were showed. Results: Adsorption process reached to equilibrium after 20 minutes. Conclusion: Absorbed process by the granules of Graphene oxide nanoparticles is low-cost high-efficiency and it could used to reduce and eliminate environmental pollutants particularly aqueous solutions. Full Text Available Application of saw dust for the removal of an anionic dye, tartrazine, from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The experiments were carried out in batch mode. Effect of the parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye was studied. Maximum adsorption of dye was achieved at pH 3. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin—Radushkevich isotherm models. The Langmuir adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is found to be 4. Kinetic modeling of the process of removal was carried out and the process of removal was found to follow a pseudo second order model and the value of rate constant for adsorption process was calculated as 2. Full Text Available The phenolic compounds are known as priority pollutants, even in low concentrations, as a result of their toxicity and non-biodegradability. For this reason, strict standards have been established for them. In addition, chlorophenols are placed in the 38th to 43th in highest priority order of toxic pollutants. As a consequence, contaminated water or wastewaters with phenolic compounds have to be treated before discharging into the receiving water. Analysis of the response surface quadratic model signified that the experiments are accurate and the model is highly significant. Moreover, the synthetic adsorbent is highly efficient in removing of 4- chlorophenol. Catalytic wet air oxidation of chlorophenols over supported ruthenium catalysts. Among the investigated noble metals, Ru appeared to be the best to promote the CWAO of CPs as far as incipient-wetness impregnation was used to prepare all the catalysts. The position of the chlorine substitution on the aromatic ring was also shown to have a significant effect on the CP reactivity in the CWAO over 3 wt. One reason could be the higher adsorption of 2-CP on the catalyst surface. Further investigations suggested that 3 wt. Additionally, the conversion of 2-CP was demonstrated to increase with the initial pH of the 2-CP solution. The dechlorination reaction is promoted at higher pH. In all cases, the adsorption of the reactants and the reaction intermediates was shown to play a major role. All parameters that would control the molecule speciation in solution or the catalyst surface properties would have a key effect. Sorption of chlorophenols from aqueous solution by granular activated carbon, filter coal, pine and hardwood. Wood and coal, as low-cost sorbents, have been evaluated as an alternative to commercial granular activated carbon GAC for chlorophenol removal. The data fitted a pseudo-second-order model. Sorption capacity data showed that GAC had a high sorption capacity mg g -1 compared with other sorbents 3. However, wood and coal had a greater sorption capacity per unit surface area than GAC. Sorption equilibrium data was best predicted using a Freundlich adsorption model. The sorption capacity for all sorbents was 2- chlorophenol coal than the other sorbents. The results showed that pine, hardwood and filter coal can be used as sorbent materials for the removal of chlorophenol from water; however, kinetic considerations may limit the application of filter coal. Reductive dehalogenation of chlorophenols by Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB Reductive dehalogenation of chlorophenols has been reported in undefined anaerobic cultures but never before in an anaerobic pure culture. We found that the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1 reductively dehalogenates pentachlorophenol PCP and other chlorophenols. The maximum rate of PCP dechlorination observed was 54 mu mol of Cl- h-1 g of protein Dehalogenation was catalyzed by living cells, and formate served as a required electron donor. Generally, more highly chlorinated phenol congeners were more readily dechlorinated, and 3- chlorophenol was not dehalogenated. A novel mixed-mode adsorbent was prepared by functionalizing silica with tris 2-aminoethyl amine and 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde as the main mixed-mode scaffold due to the presence of the plentiful amino groups and benzene rings in their molecules. The adsorption mechanism was probed with acidic, natural and basic compounds, and the mixed hydrophobic and ion-exchange interactions were found to be responsible for the adsorption of analytes. The suitability of dispersive solid-phase extraction was demonstrated in the determination of chlorophenols in environmental water. Several parameters, including sample pH, desorption solvent, ionic strength, adsorbent dose, and extraction time were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the proposed dispersive solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography showed good linearity range and acceptable limits of detection 0. Notably, the higher extraction recoveries The proposed method might be potentially applied in the determination of trace chlorophenols in real water samples. KGaA, Weinheim. Full Text Available Background and purpose: The 2- chlorophenol 2-CP and 4- chlorophenol 4-CP are phenolic compounds which may have adverse effects on human and environment. Therefore, removing these compounds from water and wastewater is necessary. Then it was treated with 0. Results: The solute removed increases as contact time rises. The equilibrium time for 2-CP and 4-CP is 90 and 75, respectively. The removal efficiency of 4-CP is more than 2-CP. An increase in initial concentration of both compounds can lead to decrease of their removal efficiency. The optimum pH to remove both compounds is 5. The equilibrium data matched best on Freundlich isotherm and the adsorption kinetic model follows pseudo-second model. Conclusion: The results indicated that Azolla is an effective adsorbent for removing 2-CP and 4-CP from water and wastewater. Of the system chrome hexavalent chlorophenol. The effect is analyzed in order to determine the operation conditions to reach the highest degradation levels possible. The analyzed variables were pH, concentration of catalyst TiO 2 , time of recirculation and the relation of initial concentrations among polluting agents. The factor that most influences the levels of removal reached is the pH, which has a different effect for each of the pollutants. Esto permitía colaborar con Folding home , una organización sin fines de lucro que investiga la estructura de las proteínas , para poder entender y curar muchas enfermedades. Google Compute permitía al usuario del computador a ayudar a solucionar problemas científicos cuando de otra forma el computador estaría inactivo. Cuando uno activaba Google Compute, el ordenador descargaba una pequeña pieza del proyecto y la resolvía, y cuando el resultado se juntaba con otros cientos de computadores, se resolvía una gran porción del problema. This is my grandmother's recipe, which my whole family loves. Soft, chewy and dense blondie brownies with rich undertones of caramel, vanilla and toffee. A simple, one-bowl recipe for whenever you need a quick dessert! Aplicar estilos 7. Crear estilos 8. Imprimir Ajustar tablas Manipular tablas Formas Utilizar plantillas Opciones de correspondencia Crear documento maestro Manipular documentos maestros Crear índices Crear tabla de contenido Crear tabla de ilustración Notas al pie Cifrar con contraseña Herramienta Resaltar Insertar comentarios Control de cambios Revisar cambios Comparar dos documentos Compartir por email Almacenar documentos en internet Enlazar blog con Word Gestionar blog. Crear y guardar un documento 1. Abrir y cerrar documentos 2. Elementos de la pantalla 2. Cinta de opciones 2. Desplazarse por el documento 3. Copiar y pegar 3. Buscar y reemplazar 4. Guardar documento 4. Abrir documento 5. Revisar ortografía durante la redacción 5. Revisar ortografía del documento 5. Aplicar un tema 6. Crear una portada 6. Color y efectos de texto 6. Listas 6. Texto tabulado 7. Crear un estilo 8. Vista previa a la impresión 9. Configurar impresión Crear tabla Aplicar estilo a tabla Desplazamiento en tablas Ordenar datos de una tabla Insertar imagen prediseñada Insertar imagen desde archivo Insertar captura de pantalla. 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Revisar ortografía durante la redacción 5. Revisar ortografía del documento 5. Aplicar un tema 6. Crear una portada 6. Color y efectos de texto 6. Listas 6. Texto tabulado 7. Crear un estilo 8. Vista previa a Búsqueda de citas barras thm impresión 9. Configurar impresión Búsqueda de citas barras thm tabla Aplicar estilo a tabla Google Compute permitía al usuario del computador a ayudar a solucionar problemas científicos cuando de otra forma el computador estaría inactivo. Cuando uno activaba Google Compute, el ordenador descargaba una pequeña pieza del proyecto y la resolvía, y cuando el resultado se juntaba con otros cientos de computadores, se resolvía una gran porción del problema.

Google Compute estuvo solo disponible para la versión en inglés de Google Toolbar. Adsorbed states of chlorophenol on Cu and controlled switching of single-molecule junctions. Okuyama, H. A molecular junction of substituted benzene chlorophenol is fabricated and controlled by Búsqueda de citas barras thm a scanning tunneling microscope STM.

Prior to the junction formation, the bonding geometry of the molecule on the surface is characterized by STM and electron energy loss spectroscopy EELS. EELS shows that the OH group of chlorophenol is dissociated on Cu and that the molecule is bonded nearly flat to the surface via an O atom, with the Cl group intact.

The asymmetric bonding motifs of the molecule to the electrodes allow for reversible control of the junction.

Gamma radiation treatment of pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2- chlorophenol in water. G CI- is always much higher than the corresponding G -PCP ,this means that some primary Búsqueda de citas barras thm products are unstable during post irradiation. PCP is much easier to be decomposed under Búsqueda de citas barras thm than that of simple chlorophenol. Some stable radiolytic intermediates were be detected. Primary analysis reveals some quinones among the final products with toxicity that remains unclear.

It is recommended to bubble ozone simultaneously when radiation or electron beam treat CPs contaminating water. Evaluation of toxicity and genotoxicity of 2- chlorophenol on bacteria, fish and human cells. Based on the existing knowledge and in order to move a step forward, the purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic and mainly the genotoxic effects of 2-CP using a combination of bioassays. The tests include the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and micronuclei induction in the erythrocytes of Carassius auratus as well as in cultured human lymphocytes.

The Búsqueda de citas barras thm obtained reveal that 2-CP is able to induce dose-dependent toxic and genotoxic effects on the selected tested concentrations under the specific experimental conditions.

Full Text Available The photocatalytic process is a useful method for the effective removal of phenolic compounds. Fly ash obatined from the Thermal Power Plant in Zarand, Kerman, was initially washed with sulfuric acid before read article oxidized with potassium permanganate.

The mixture of modified fly ash and TiO2 was then used for the removal of ortho- chlorophenol in the presence of UV light and the factors involved in the removal process were optimized. It was, further, observed that removal efficiency with a modified fly ash to TiO2 ratio of rose to The ortho- chlorophenol removal learn more here in real wastewater from the Coal Wash Plant in Zarand was recorded at Based on the results obtained from simultaneous use of modified fly ash and TiO2, the proposed method may be recommended for industrial applications.

The oxidation rate was influenced by many factors, such as the pH value, the Búsqueda de citas barras thm of hydrogen peroxide, irradiation time and microwave power. The degradation of p- chlorophenol by different types of oxidation processes followed first order rate decay kinetics.

The rate constants were 0. The radiolysis of aqueous 4- chlorophenol 4-CP by gamma radiation in the presence of air and ozone was investigated. Some primary influencing factors such as irradiation time and initial 4-CP concentration were also discussed. The results showed that the degradation of 4- chlorophenol could described by first-order reaction kinetic model. There is potential for combination of irradiation with ozonation, which can remarkably reduce the irradiation dose increase the degradation efficiency of 4-CP.

Photodegradation was carried out in a batch system by irradiating a suspension of TiO2, p- Búsqueda de citas barras thmand Fe III as ionic or colloidal forms, using UV lamp for Búsqueda de citas barras thm period of time accompanied by magnetic stirring.

Concentration of photodegraded p- chlorophenol was calculated by subtracting the initial concentration with that of undegraded p- chlorophenol. Concentration of undegraded p- chlorophenol was determined by gas click the following article. In this study, TiO2 mass and the photodegradation time were optimized. The research results showed that the presence of Fe III ions improved the effectiveness of photocatalytical degradation of p- chlorophenolwhich was proportional to the concentrations of Fe III ion.

In contrast, the increasing mass of Fe OH3 led to a decrease in the degree of p- chlorophenol photodegradation. Furthermore, it was observed that increasing pH of the solution resulted in a decrease in the photodegradation of p- chlorophenol.

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This phenomena may be due to the different species of TiO2 available at the surface of photocatalyst and of ionic Fe III and colloidal Fe OH3 in the solution resulted from the pH alteration. The highest photodegradation degree, ca. BiOI nanoplates were deposited upon a film of TiO 2 nanoparticles derived from a commercial source using a simple room temperature sequential ionic layer click and reaction SILAR method.

X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopies Búsqueda de citas barras thm been used to confirm the crystal phase, chemical states of key elements and morphology of the BiOI nanoplate-TiO 2 composites. The visible-light sensitisation effect of BiOI Búsqueda de citas barras thm then proven by examination of the photocatalytic degradation of the colourless organic pollutant 4- chlorophenolshowing a large enhancement over an equivalent TiO 2 film.

The enhanced photoactivity of nanosized Bi2WO6 catalyst for the degradation of 4- chlorophenol. Nanosized Bi 2 WO 6 catalyst exhibited the enhanced photoactivity for the degradation of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP under visible irradiation compared to the sample prepared by high-temperature solid reaction.

The photoactivity of the catalyst was sensitive to pH variation of the suspension. Nanosized Bi 2 WO 6 catalyst showed the highest activity at pH 7. After three recycling runs for the photodegradation of 4-CP, the activity of the catalyst did not show any significant loss, suggesting that the catalyst was stable under visible irradiation.

Los mecanismos de influencia Búsqueda de citas barras thm el liderazgo.

Búsqueda de citas barras thm

Influence of humic acids of different origins on oxidation of phenol and chlorophenols by permanganate. The influences Búsqueda de citas barras thm humic acids HAs of different origins, including two commercial HAs, three soil HAs and one aquatic HA, on phenols oxidation by permanganate were studied.

Moreover, the commercial HA Shanghai could accelerate the oxidation of different chlorophenols CP significantly under neutral condition. Solar efficiency of a new deposited titania photocatalyst. Chlorophenolpesticide link dye removal applications.

Senes Km. A specially designed titania photocatalyst was prepared by coating Ahlstrom non-woven paper, used as a flexible photocatalytic support, with Millennium PC Búsqueda de citas barras thm.

Xxx Saxcom Watch SEX Movies Hotest Pornstars. Okuyama, H. A molecular junction of substituted benzene chlorophenol is fabricated and controlled by using a scanning tunneling microscope STM. Prior to the junction formation, the bonding geometry of the molecule on the surface is characterized by STM and electron energy loss spectroscopy EELS. EELS shows that the OH group of chlorophenol is dissociated on Cu and that the molecule is bonded nearly flat to the surface via an O atom, with the Cl group intact. The asymmetric bonding motifs of the molecule to the electrodes allow for reversible control of the junction. Gamma radiation treatment of pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2- chlorophenol in water. G CI- is always much higher than the corresponding G -PCP ,this means that some primary radiolytic products are unstable during post irradiation. PCP is much easier to be decomposed under irradiation than that of simple chlorophenol. Some stable radiolytic intermediates were be detected. Primary analysis reveals some quinones among the final products with toxicity that remains unclear. It is recommended to bubble ozone simultaneously when radiation or electron beam treat CPs contaminating water. Evaluation of toxicity and genotoxicity of 2- chlorophenol on bacteria, fish and human cells. Based on the existing knowledge and in order to move a step forward, the purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic and mainly the genotoxic effects of 2-CP using a combination of bioassays. The tests include the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and micronuclei induction in the erythrocytes of Carassius auratus as well as in cultured human lymphocytes. The results obtained reveal that 2-CP is able to induce dose-dependent toxic and genotoxic effects on the selected tested concentrations under the specific experimental conditions. Full Text Available The photocatalytic process is a useful method for the effective removal of phenolic compounds. Fly ash obatined from the Thermal Power Plant in Zarand, Kerman, was initially washed with sulfuric acid before being oxidized with potassium permanganate. The mixture of modified fly ash and TiO2 was then used for the removal of ortho- chlorophenol in the presence of UV light and the factors involved in the removal process were optimized. It was, further, observed that removal efficiency with a modified fly ash to TiO2 ratio of rose to The ortho- chlorophenol removal efficiency in real wastewater from the Coal Wash Plant in Zarand was recorded at Based on the results obtained from simultaneous use of modified fly ash and TiO2, the proposed method may be recommended for industrial applications. The oxidation rate was influenced by many factors, such as the pH value, the amount of hydrogen peroxide, irradiation time and microwave power. The degradation of p- chlorophenol by different types of oxidation processes followed first order rate decay kinetics. The rate constants were 0. The radiolysis of aqueous 4- chlorophenol 4-CP by gamma radiation in the presence of air and ozone was investigated. Some primary influencing factors such as irradiation time and initial 4-CP concentration were also discussed. The results showed that the degradation of 4- chlorophenol could described by first-order reaction kinetic model. There is potential for combination of irradiation with ozonation, which can remarkably reduce the irradiation dose increase the degradation efficiency of 4-CP. Photodegradation was carried out in a batch system by irradiating a suspension of TiO2, p- chlorophenol , and Fe III as ionic or colloidal forms, using UV lamp for a period of time accompanied by magnetic stirring. Concentration of photodegraded p- chlorophenol was calculated by subtracting the initial concentration with that of undegraded p- chlorophenol. Concentration of undegraded p- chlorophenol was determined by gas chromatography. In this study, TiO2 mass and the photodegradation time were optimized. The research results showed that the presence of Fe III ions improved the effectiveness of photocatalytical degradation of p- chlorophenol , which was proportional to the concentrations of Fe III ion. In contrast, the increasing mass of Fe OH3 led to a decrease in the degree of p- chlorophenol photodegradation. Furthermore, it was observed that increasing pH of the solution resulted in a decrease in the photodegradation of p- chlorophenol. This phenomena may be due to the different species of TiO2 available at the surface of photocatalyst and of ionic Fe III and colloidal Fe OH3 in the solution resulted from the pH alteration. The highest photodegradation degree, ca. BiOI nanoplates were deposited upon a film of TiO 2 nanoparticles derived from a commercial source using a simple room temperature sequential ionic layer adsorption and reaction SILAR method. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopies have been used to confirm the crystal phase, chemical states of key elements and morphology of the BiOI nanoplate-TiO 2 composites. The visible-light sensitisation effect of BiOI was then proven by examination of the photocatalytic degradation of the colourless organic pollutant 4- chlorophenol , showing a large enhancement over an equivalent TiO 2 film. The enhanced photoactivity of nanosized Bi2WO6 catalyst for the degradation of 4- chlorophenol. Nanosized Bi 2 WO 6 catalyst exhibited the enhanced photoactivity for the degradation of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP under visible irradiation compared to the sample prepared by high-temperature solid reaction. The photoactivity of the catalyst was sensitive to pH variation of the suspension. Nanosized Bi 2 WO 6 catalyst showed the highest activity at pH 7. After three recycling runs for the photodegradation of 4-CP, the activity of the catalyst did not show any significant loss, suggesting that the catalyst was stable under visible irradiation. Los mecanismos de influencia en el liderazgo. Influence of humic acids of different origins on oxidation of phenol and chlorophenols by permanganate. The influences of humic acids HAs of different origins, including two commercial HAs, three soil HAs and one aquatic HA, on phenols oxidation by permanganate were studied. Moreover, the commercial HA Shanghai could accelerate the oxidation of different chlorophenols CP significantly under neutral condition. Solar efficiency of a new deposited titania photocatalyst. Chlorophenol , pesticide and dye removal applications. Senes Km. A specially designed titania photocatalyst was prepared by coating Ahlstrom non-woven paper, used as a flexible photocatalytic support, with Millennium PC anatase. At the same time, a new solar photoreactor STEP was designed based on the multi-step cascade falling-film principle to ensure good exposure to sunlight and good oxygenation of the effluent to be treated. Several types of reactants were treated: 4- chlorophenol as a model organic pollutant; formetanate, a widely used pesticide in horticulture; a mixture of pesticides used in vineyards; and indigo carmine IC and Congo red CR , which are complex multifunctional dye molecules. Each reaction was performed simultaneously in a solar CPC slurry photoreactor and in the STEP photoreactor under identical solar exposure to better evaluate and validate the results obtained. In contrast, both dyes required longer treatment in STEP experiments. This new system, in which the final tedious filtration can actually be avoided, constitutes a good alternative to slurries. Full Text Available The voluntary or accidental release of chemical compounds in the environment is a major cause of pollution of natural waters. Most of chlorophenols are toxic and hardly biodegradable and are difficult to remove from the environment. The objective of this work is to test the activity photocatalytic of natural iron oxide NIO in the photodegradation of 2- chlorophenol 2-CP. The analysis chromatographic with HPLC of solutions exposed under UV irradiation revealed that the degradation of 2-CP was negligible under the condition of using only natural iron oxide. The effect of wavelength on photoreactivity of NIO was also investigated in this process: at high wavelength thus at low energy the efficiency of degradation is important. We have also investigated the activation of NIO by hydrogen peroxide and oxalic acid, The results showed that the photodegradation of 2-CP under UVA irradiation could be enhanced greatly in the presence of oxalate. The use of 2. Kinetics of the degradation of 2- chlorophenol by ozonation at pH 3. Prediction of byproduct distribution during ozonation is of importance to the design of treatment process. In this study, degradation products in direct ozonation of 2- chlorophenol in aqueous solution were identified by employing the chemical derivatization technique, specifically, silylation. Transient distribution of degradation products, in a semi-batch reactor under three ozone dosages were identified and determined by HPLC analysis. An empirical degradation pathway was proposed to describe the ozonation reaction. A mathematical protocol consisting of 11 equations and 12 rate constants was developed to solve and optimize the kinetic parameters. Modeling results revealed that the empirical pathway was capable of predicting the ozonation reaction at the beginning phase under a higher ozone dosage e. The degree of agreement between predicted and experimental data decreased as the ozone dosage decreased to 1. Results suggested that there was a dosage-dependent pathway in the direct ozonation of 2- chlorophenol. Bioconcentration of atrazine and chlorophenols into roots and shoots of rice seedlings. Accumulation of o- chlorophenol CP , 2,4-dichlorophenol DCP , and atrazine ATR , as single and mixed contaminants, from hydroponic solutions into roots and shoots of rice seedlings was studied following h exposure of the plant roots. As single contaminants at low levels, the observed bioconcentration factors BCFs of CP and DCP with roots approximated the equilibrium values according to the partition-limited model. The BCF of atrazine with roots was about half the partition limit for unknown reasons. As mixed contaminants at low levels, the BCFs with both roots and shoots were comparable with those for the single contaminants; at high levels, the BCFs generally decreased because of the enhanced mixed-contaminant phytotoxicity, as manifested by the greatly reduced plant transpiration rate. He Di, E-mail: hedy hotmail. Guerin, V. Studies have shown chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols had a good correlation with TEQ, suggesting Biological and photocatalytic treatment integrated with separation and reuse of titanium dioxide on the removal of chlorophenols in tap water. We investigated biological, photocatalytic, and combination of biological and photocatalytic treatments in order to remove a mixture of 2- chlorophenol , 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in tap water total: mg L -1 , each: 25 mg L The removal of chlorinated phenols was conducted with a flow biological treatment and a circulative flow photocatalytic treatment under black light and sunlight irradiations integrated with titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The combined biological-photocatalytic treatment significantly shortened the degradation and mineralization time of both the biological treatment and the photocatalytic treatment. The removed chlorophenols per hour by the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was After a large portion of biodegradable 2- chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-trichlorophenol were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenols , biorecalcitrant pentachlorophenol, and biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment. Since titanium dioxide particles in tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined treatment can be operated by integrating with the titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The TiO 2 particles were recovered and reused at least three times without significantly decreasing the removal efficiency. Suryaman, Dhanus, E-mail: dhanussuryaman yahoo. Thamrin No. Formulation and stabilization of an Arthrobacter strain with good storage stability and 4- chlorophenol -degradation activity for bioremediation. Bjerketorp, Joakim; Röling, Wilfred F. Chlorophenols are widespread and of environmental concern due to their toxic and carcinogenic properties. Development of less costly and less technically challenging remediation methods are needed; therefore, we developed a formulation based on micronized vermiculite that, when air-dried, resulted. Preparation of activated carbons from unburnt coal in bottom ash with KOH activation for liquid-phase adsorption. In this work, unburnt coal UC in bottom ash from coal-fired power plants was soaked in KOH solution and activated for 1 h at degrees C. The yield of activated carbons varied from Pore properties of these activated carbons including the BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized based on N 2 adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacities of methylene blue, acid blue 74, and 4- chlorophenol were obtained to be 2. Moreover, the adsorption kinetics could be suitably described by the Elovich equation. Copyright Published by Elsevier Ltd. In this work, a procedure based on solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is proposed to determine chlorophenols in water without derivatization. The following chlorophenols are studied: 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. The accuracy trueness and precision of the procedure was assessed. This procedure has been applied to river water samples. Preparation of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous polycysteine film and application in sensitive detection of 4- chlorophenol. After removing polystyrene template, a three-dimensionally ordered macroporous 3-DOM polycysteine film was achieved, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy measurements. The application of 3-DOM polycysteine film in electrochemical detection of 4- chlorophenol was studied. Due to ordered porous structures, the 3-DOM polycysteine film-modified GCE displayed signal enhancement effects, and enhanced the oxidation peak currents of 4- chlorophenol. As a result, a sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the detection of 4- chlorophenol , and the detection limit was 1. This new method was used to detect 4- chlorophenol in water samples, and the value of recovery was over the range from Sorption of 2- Chlorophenol from aqueous solutions by functionalized cross-linked polymers. They were morphological and chemically characterized using different techniques. The extraction capacity of the polymers was evaluated using 2- chlorophenol. Comparison of different chlorophenols degradation in aqueous solutions by gamma irradiation under reducing conditions. This confirmed that the number and position of chlorine atoms existing in the benzene ring have significant impact on dechlorination and decomposition of CPs. Photoelectron and UV absorption spectroscopy for determination of electronic configurations of negative molecular ions: Chlorophenols. The photoelectron and UV absorption spectra of p-, m-, and o- chlorophenols in the gas phase have been obtained. For each excited state a dominant transition was found. It has been shown that the energies of these singlet transitions correlate with the energy differences between the ground-state molecular orbitals participating in them. Using the UV spectra interpretation, the electronic states of molecular anions detected earlier for the same compounds by means of the resonant electron capture mass-spectrometry have been determined. The combination of high voltage pulse discharge and ozonation as an advanced oxidation technology was used to investigate the degradation of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP in water. The factors that affect the rate of degradation were discussed. The 1. The degradation of 4-CP was investigated as a function of the ozone concentration, radical scavenger and electrode distance. The rate of 4-CP degradation increases with an increase in ozone concentration and a decrease in the electrode distance from 20 mm to 10 mm. The presence of radical scavenger decreased the rate of 4-CP degradation. Herein we demonstrate a simplistic microwave assisted chemical precipitation approach regarding the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. As-prepared ZnO nanoparticles NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffractometry and scrutinized as photo-catalysts for degradation of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP under sunlight. The study substantiated that The nanocatalysts were recycled four times and still showed catalytic efficiency up to Rotating biological contractor treatment of 2-nitrophenol and 2- chlorophenol containing hazardous wastes. Rotating Biological Contactors RBCs have a number of advantages over other biological treatment systems. For example, they can provide high treatment efficiencies of activated sludge systems with much lower energy inputs. Organic shock loads are handled well because large biomass is present. No bulking, foaming, or floating of sludge occurs and sludge has good settleability and dewaterability. Another advantage of RBC systems is the minimal labor requirement for operation and maintenance. Even though RBC systems have these advantages, their acceptance was slow mainly due to operational problems with the earlier units such as shaft failures and the lack of considerable design and operation data. A review of literature shows that there is only limited information available on the wastewater treatment with RBCs. Recently, there has been considerable contributions to the knowledge on RBC technology. However, information on the treatment of organic hazardous wastes using RBCs is still very limited. This paper reports that a considerable number of studies on the biological treatment of organic hazardous compounds was sponsored by U. For example, an EPA sponsored study examined the effect of such compounds on the performance of activated sludge process. Bench-scale continuous-flow and batch units were used. Influent was settled municipal wastewater to which toxic compounds were added. No adverse effect of 2-nitrophenol on the batch system was reports. Ventana de impresión 9. Otras opciones de impresión 9. 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Recreando la educación emancipadora..

At the same time, a new solar photoreactor STEP was designed based on the multi-step cascade falling-film Búsqueda de citas barras thm to ensure good Búsqueda de citas barras thm to sunlight and good oxygenation of the effluent to be treated. Several types of reactants were treated: 4- chlorophenol as a model organic pollutant; formetanate, a widely used pesticide in horticulture; a mixture of pesticides used in vineyards; and indigo carmine IC and Congo red CRwhich are complex multifunctional dye molecules.

Each reaction was performed simultaneously in a solar CPC slurry photoreactor and in the STEP photoreactor under identical solar exposure to better evaluate and validate the results obtained. In contrast, both dyes required longer treatment in STEP experiments.

Hottie Morgan Watch PORN Movies Rayxc Sex. Su contenido es multidisciplinar y los documentos se encuentran en pdf. Portal de Desarrollo Humano Local Sostenible. Recursos para el desarrollo humano, la educación global y la participación ciudadana. Recreando la educación emancipadora. Diccionario de Acción Humanitaria y Cooperación al Desarrollo. Diccionario de Educación al Desarrollo. The same set of treatments was also applied to 2,4-dichlorophenol 2,4-DCP and phenol, the first two products that occur a step down in the degradation sequence. Fenton and Fenton-like reagents were employed at the lowest active concentration. The effects of US and MW irradiation were investigated and compared with those of conventional treatments. Detailed mechanisms of Fenton-type reactions were suggested for 2,4-D, 2,4-DCP, and phenol, underlining the principal degradation products identified. MW-promoted degradation under solvent-free conditions with solid Fenton-like reagents viz. SPC is extremely efficient and mainly follows pyrolytic pathways. Power US strongly accelerates the degradation of 2,4-D in water through a rapid generation of highly reactive radicals; it does not lead to the formation of more toxic dimers. We show that US and MW enhance the oxidative degradation of 2,4-D and that a considerable saving of oxidants and cutting down of. Bioremediation of 2- chlorophenol containing wastewater by aerobic granules-kinetics and toxicity. The organic loading rate OLR was increased from 6. The specific cell growth rate was found to be 0. Enhanced chlorophenol sorption of soils by rice-straw-ash amendment. Rice-straw burning is a common post-harvest practice on rice paddy land, which results in the accumulation of rice-straw ash RSA in paddy soil. The results showed that the sorption of 3-CP to RSA proceeds through a surface reaction rather than through partitioning and that the neutral form of 3-CP is preferentially sorbed to the surface when compared to the deprotonated anionic form of 3-CP. Thus, RSA contributed more to the total sorption of the soils than other major components in the soils. This may be attributed to the competition of organic matter or other soil components for the surface binding sites of RSA. Enhanced degradation of p- chlorophenol in a novel pulsed high voltage discharge reactor. The yields of active specie such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical were all enhanced in a novel discharge reactor. In the reactor, the original formation rate of hydroxyl radical was 2. Ozone was formed in gas-phase and was transferred into the liquid. The characteristic of mass transfer was better in the novel reactor than that in the contrast reactor, which caused much higher ozone concentration in liquid. The dissociation of hydrogen peroxide was more evident in the former, which promoted the formations of hydroxyl radical. The p- chlorophenol 4-CP degradation was also enhanced. Most of the ozone transferred into the liquid and hydrogen peroxide generated by discharge could be utilized by the degradation process of 4-CP. Organic acids such as formic, acetic, oxalic, propanoic and maleic acid were generated and free chloride ions were released in the degradation process. With the formation of organic acid, the pH was decreased and the conductivity was increased. Using different rations of sludge extracts and supernate from 4- Chlorophenol 4-CP simulated wastewater's excess sludge after centrifugation to cultivate the Chlorella vulgaris to achieve the goal of excess sludge utilization together with chlorella cultivating. Number of algal cells, Chlorophyll, enzyme activity, oil and water total nitrogen TN , total phosphorus TP , total organic carbon TOC , toxicity index were investigated. Sludge extracts could promote the proliferation of algae, but were not conducive to the synthesis of chlorophyll. The quantity of SOD in per cell showed Chlorella vulgaris gave a positive response via stimulation from toxicant in sludge extracts and supernate. The best time for collecting chlorella vulgaris was the fifth day of cultivation, taking neutral oil accumulation as the evaluating indicator for its utilization combined with the removal of supplies and toxicity. Full Text Available Parameter identification plays a crucial role for simulating and using model. This paper firstly carried out the sensitivity analysis of the 2- chlorophenol oxidation model in supercritical water using the Monte Carlo method. Then, to address the nonlinearity of the model, two improved differential search DS algorithms were proposed to carry out the parameter identification of the model. One strategy is to adopt the Latin hypercube sampling method to replace the uniform distribution of initial population; the other is to combine DS with simplex method. The results of sensitivity analysis reveal the sensitivity and the degree of difficulty identified for every model parameter. Furthermore, the posteriori probability distribution of parameters and the collaborative relationship between any two parameters can be obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the improved algorithms, the optimization performance of improved DS in kinetic parameter estimation is studied and compared with that of the basic DS algorithm, differential evolution, artificial bee colony optimization, and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. And the experimental results demonstrate that the DS with the Latin hypercube sampling method does not present better performance, while the hybrid methods have the advantages of strong global search ability and local search ability and are more effective than the other algorithms. Physical and biological parameters that determine the fate of p- chlorophenol in laboratory test systems. Shake-flask and microcosm studies were conducted to determine the fate of para- chlorophenol p-CP in water and sediment systems and the role of sediment and nonsediment surfaces in the biodegradation process. Biodegradation of p-CP in estuarine water samples in shake flasks was slow over incubation periods of h. The addition of detrital sediment resulted in immediate and rapid degradation evidence by the production of 14 CO 2 from [ 14 C]p-CP. The addition of sterile sediment, glass beads, or sand resulted in approximately four to six times more CO 2 evolution than observed in the water alone. Densities of p-CP-degrading bacteria associated with the detrital sediment were times greater than those enumerated in water. Bacteria in the water and associated with the sediment after preexposure of both water and sediment of p-CP demonstrated enhanced biodegradation. In some microcosms, p-CP was degraded completely in the top 1. Sediment reworking activities by benthic invertebrates from one site were sufficient to mix p-CP deep into the sediment bed faster than biodegradation or molecular diffusion. Electron trapping experiments demonstrated that photogenerated electrons are the responsible for the reductive dechlorinaton of 4- chlorophenol to phenol. With the optimal scavengers, the conversion efficiency of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP achieved Microrespirometric determination of the effectiveness factor and biodegradation kinetics of aerobic granules degrading 4- chlorophenol as the sole carbon source. The experimental model was an aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor SBR degrading synthetic wastewater containing 4- chlorophenol as the sole carbon source. After 15 days of acclimation, the SBR process degraded 4- chlorophenol at a removal rate of up to 0. The microrespirometric method consisted of injecting pulses of 4- chlorophenol into the 24 wells of a microreactor system containing the SBR samples. From the respirograms obtained, the following five kinetic parameters were successfully determined during reactor operation: i Maximum specific oxygen uptake rate, ii substrate affinity constant, iii substrate inhibition constant, iv maximum specific growth rate, and v cell growth yield. Microrespirometry tests using granules and disaggregated granules allowed for the determination of apparent and intrinsic parameters, which in turn enabled the determination of the effectiveness factor of the granular sludge. It was concluded that this new high-throughput method has the potential to elucidate the complex biological and physicochemical processes of aerobic granular biosystems. Enhanced aerobic degradation of 4- chlorophenol with iron-nickel nanoparticles. This study provides new insight into the role of bimetallic nickel on enhancing removal of organic pollutants with nZVI. Amorphous TiO2 doped with carbon for visible light photodegradation of rhodamine B and 4- chlorophenol. In addition, the most active sample is characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, UV—vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer and luminescence spectrometer. The results show that the most active sample with oxygenic groups has a narrower bandgap and lower recombination of electron—hole, due to the carbon doping and phase of amorphous. Effective photodegradation capability and stability of rhodamine B and colorless 4- chlorophenol are verified by photocatalytic tests under visible light irradiation. A possible mechanism of amorphous TiO 2 doped with carbon for visible light photocatalysis is proposed. The findings of this paper will provide new insights to design visible light-induced photocatalyst based on amorphous TiO 2 for organic removal. Piezo-catalysis was first used to degrade a nondye pollutant, 4- chlorophenol 4-CP. It was found that the piezoelectric potential from the deformation could not only successfully degrade 4- chlorophenol but also effectively dechlorinate it at the same time, and five kinds of dechlorinated intermediates, hydroquinone, benzoquinone, phenol, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexanol, were determined. This is the first sample of piezo-dechlorination. These results indicated that the piezo-catalysis was an emerging and effective advanced oxidation technology for degradation and dechlorination of organic pollutants. Chronic exposure to chlorophenol related compounds in the pesticide production workplace and lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Chlorophenols CPs and related phenoxyacetic acids PAs are pesticide groups contaminated with highly toxic 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin TCDD during production. PAs and CPs exposure is associated with risk of cancer, but the situation regarding lung cancer has not been clearly defined. We proposed a meta-analysis of published researches to evaluate relationship between chronic exposure to PAs and CPs in pesticide production workplaces and the risk of lung cancer. We used random or fixed-effects models, Egger test, funnel plot and meta regression in our analysis. Five papers with six reports were included in the final analysis. The standardized mortality rate for lung cancer from the random model was 1. Our findings has strengthen the evidence of lung cancer from chronic exposure to chlorophenol related compounds PAs, CPs. Room-temperature Pd-catalyzed C-H chlorination by weak coordination: one-pot synthesis of 2- chlorophenols with excellent regioselectivity. A room-temperature Pd II -catalyzed regioselective chlorination reaction has been developed for a facile one-pot synthesis of a broad range of 2- chlorophenols. The reaction demonstrates an excellent regioselectivity and reactivity for C-H chlorination. This reaction represents one of the rare examples of mild C-H functionalization at ambient temperature. Toxicity assessment of 4- chlorophenol to aerobic granular sludge and its interaction with extracellular polymeric substances. Correspondingly, the respirometric activities of heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria of aerobic granular sludge were significantly inhibited in the presence of 4-CP. Moreover, the main components of extracellular polymeric substances EPS including polysaccharides and proteins increased from Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix 3D-EEM fluorescence spectroscopy further showed that the intensities of EPS samples were obviously quenched with the increased of 4-CP concentrations. To be more detailed, synchronous fluorescence spectra indicated that the interaction between EPS and 4-CP was mainly caused by tryptophan residues. The results could provide reliable and accurate information to determine the potential toxicity of 4-CP on the performance of aerobic granular sludge system. A sensitive electrochemical chlorophenols sensor based on nanocomposite of ZnSe quantum dots and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The nanocomposite of ZnSe—CTAB introduced a favorable access for the electron transfer and showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of CPs. Under the optimum conditions, the peak currents of the CPs were proportional to their concentrations in the range from 0. The detection limits were 0. The method was successfully applied for the determination of CPs in waste water with satisfactory recoveries. Interfacial adsorption of insulin - Conformational changes and reversibility of adsorption. The adsorption of human insulin to Teflon particles was studied with respect to conformational changes and the reversibility of adsorption was examined by total internal reflection fluorescence TIRF. Adsorption isotherms for the adsorption of human insulin indicated high affinity adsorption , even. Chlorophenol and alkylphenol concentrations in sediment and mussel tissues collected from selected locations in Kentucky Lake, USA. Loganathan, B. It serves as an ultimate repository of substances entering this watershed from portions of seven southeastern states, which include a sizeable fraction of the U. Furthermore, wood samples from abandoned docks, navigational towers and wood found in the lake bottom were also analyzed to examine the sources of CPs to the lakes. Determination of chlorophenols in landfill leachate using headspace sampling with ionic liquid-coated solid-phase microextraction fibers combined with gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. No carryover effect was found, and every laboratory-made ionic liquids-coated-fiber could be used for extraction at least eighty times without degradation of efficiency. Linearity was observed from 0. The limit of detection LOD for pentachlorophenol was 0. The proposed method was tested by analyzing landfill leachate from a sewage farm. The concentrations of chlorophenols were detected to range from 1. Determination of chlorophenols in landfill leachate using headspace sampling with ionic liquid-coated solid-phase microextraction fibers combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The best results of chlorophenols analysis were obtained with landfill leachate at pH 2, headspace extraction for 4 min, and thermal desorption with the gas chromatograph injector at Degree-Sign C for 4 min. What else? After revisiting my memory as PhD student and the First Brazilian Adsorption meeting I will review the basic concepts involved in adsorption processes and then The Pd-catalyzed hydrodechlorination of chlorophenols in aqueous solutions under mild conditions: A promising approach to practical use in wastewater. Xia Chuanhai, E-mail: chuanhaixia gmail. C under atmospheric pressure. Phenol, cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol were formed. In contrast to the dechlorination of monochlorophenols, the hydrogenation reaction of polychlorinated phenols became difficult and reaction rates were strongly dependent upon the number of the chlorine atoms. The solvent property had a considerably important influence on the dechlorination reaction. Water as a solvent showed more advantages than organic solvents. It was much easier to be hydrodechlorinated for chlorophenols in aqueous solutions. Additionally, when different halogenated organic compounds were present in aqueous solution, the dehalogenation reaction was the competitive hydrogenation process. Langmuir and Freundlich models have been applied to experimental isotherms data, to better understand the adsorption mechanisms. A Simple Adsorption Experiment. The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…. Radioactive nuclide adsorption. Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radioactive nuclide adsorption device by applying a nickel plating on a nickel plate to render the surface active. Constitution: A capturing device for radioactive nuclide such as manganese 54, cobalt 60, 58 and the like is disposed to the inside of a pipeway provided on the upper portion of fuel assemblies through which liquid sodium as the coolant for LMFBR type reactor is passed. The device comprises a cylindrical adsorption body and spacers. The adsorption body is made of nickel and applied with a nickel plating on the surface thereof. The surface of the adsorption body is unevened to result in disturbance in the coolant and thereby improve the adsorptive efficiency. Kawakami, Y. Full Text Available To shorten the biological treating time and to examine the effect of electrolytes in a model water on the photocatalytic treatment, the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was evaluated for removal of a mixture total: mg L-1, each: 25 mg L-1 of 2- chlorophenol 2-CP, 2,4-dichlorophenol 2,4-DCP, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol 2,4,5-TCP, and pentachlorophenol PCP in tap water. The mineralization of the four phenols was performed by a flow biological treatment-circulative flow photocatalytic treatment operation under black light and sunlight irradiations. The combined treatment significantly shortened the degradation time only the biotreatment. High circulative flow rate mL min-1 enabled for TiO2 particles to completely suspend in a tubular photoreactor and resulted in high removals of chlorophenols and TOC. Sunlight irradiation was successfully used and the saving of the electric energy of black light was possible. Since TiO2 particles in the tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined system can be operated by integrating it with the TiO2 separation. Keywords: photocatalysis, titanium dioxide, biodegradation, pollutant, wastewater. Full Text Available In the present work the performance of semifluidized bed adsorber was evaluated for removal of phenolic compound from wastewater using commercial activated carbon as adsorbent. P- chlorophenol 4- Chlorophenol and o-cresol 2-methylphenol was selected as a phenolic compound for that purpose. The experimental semifluidized adsorber unit was designed and constructed in Chem. The results showed that the initial percent removal of phenolic compounds P- chlorophenol and o-cresol decrease with increasing the superficial liquid velocity while the time required reaching equilibrium state decreased. Also it slightly affected with the increase in the retaining grid height and the time required to reach the equilibrium value decreased. This study reports the kinetics of the degradation of several chlorophenols CPs , such as monochlorophenols 2- chlorophenol and 4- chlorophenol , dichlorophenols 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,6- dichlorophenol , trichlorophenols 2,3,5- trichlorophenol and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol , 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol, by the electro-Fenton process using a carbon felt cathode and a Pt anode. The effect of number and the position of the chlorine atoms in the aromatic ring on the oxidative degradation rate was evaluated and discussed. The oxidation reaction of all the CPs with hydroxyl radicals evidenced a pseudo-first-order kinetics and the rate constant decreased with increasing the number of chlorine atoms. The mineralization of several CPs and of a mixture of all CPs under study was monitored by the total organic carbon TOC removal and the chlorine release during mineralization was followed by ion chromatography. Our results demonstrated that more chlorinated phenols are more difficult to mineralize; however for all the tested CPs, almost quantitative release of chloride ions was obtained after 6 h of treatment. Development and validation of a simple thin-layer chromatographic method for the analysis of p- chlorophenol in treated wastewater. Full Text Available A thin-layer chromatographic method with densitometric detection was established for quantification of p- chlorophenol in waste water. Degradation efficiency of p- chlorophenol was monitored after each treatment of the wastewater samples. This is my grandmother's recipe, which my whole family loves. Soft, chewy and dense blondie brownies with rich undertones of caramel, vanilla and toffee. A simple, one-bowl recipe for whenever you need a quick dessert! Control de cambios Modificar la apariencia de los comentarios Personalizar el control de cambios Comparar cambios sobre un documento Formularios Propiedades comunes de los controles Controles de contenido Proteger formularios Unidad Word e internet Enviar documentos por fax o correo-e Preparar un documento para compartir Office online Guardar en SharePoint y publicar Unidad Insertar y modificar hiperenlaces Convertir a HTML Publicar en Internet Consejos de diseño Unidad Publicar en un blog con Word Crear un blog Enlazar el blog con Word Entorno de Word para la edición de blogs Publicar una entrada Modificar una entrada existente Administrar cuentas Organizar entradas en categorías. Primeros pasos en Word 2. Entorno de trabajo 2. Ayuda de Word 3. Desplazamiento y selección 3. El portapapeles 3. Vistas 4. Guardar 5. Revisar mientras se escribe 5. Revisar documento completo 5. Libros de referencia 6. 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This new system, in which the final tedious filtration can actually be avoided, constitutes a good alternative to slurries. Full Text Available The voluntary or accidental release of chemical compounds in the environment is a major cause of pollution of natural waters.

Most of chlorophenols are toxic and hardly biodegradable and are difficult to remove from the environment. The objective of this work is to test the Búsqueda de citas barras thm photocatalytic of natural iron oxide NIO in the photodegradation of 2- chlorophenol 2-CP. The analysis chromatographic Búsqueda de citas barras thm HPLC of solutions exposed under UV irradiation revealed that the degradation of 2-CP was negligible under the condition of using only natural iron oxide.

The effect of wavelength on photoreactivity of NIO was also investigated in this process: at high wavelength thus at low https://home-u.daftarcpns.online/topic-2020-09-04.php the efficiency of degradation is important.

We have also investigated the activation of NIO by hydrogen peroxide and oxalic acid, Búsqueda de citas barras thm results showed that the photodegradation of 2-CP under UVA irradiation could be enhanced greatly in Búsqueda de citas barras thm presence of oxalate.

The use of 2. Kinetics of the degradation of 2- chlorophenol by ozonation at pH 3. Prediction of byproduct distribution during ozonation is of importance to the design of treatment process.

In this study, degradation products in direct ozonation of 2- chlorophenol in aqueous solution were identified by employing the chemical derivatization technique, specifically, silylation. Transient distribution of degradation products, in a semi-batch reactor under three ozone dosages were identified and determined by HPLC analysis. An empirical degradation pathway was proposed to describe the ozonation reaction.

A mathematical protocol consisting of 11 equations and 12 rate constants was developed to solve and optimize the kinetic parameters. Modeling results revealed that the empirical pathway was capable of predicting the ozonation reaction at the beginning phase under a higher ozone dosage e.

The degree of agreement between predicted and experimental data decreased as the ozone dosage decreased to 1.

Fucking Workout Watch SEX Movies Asex tape. The adsorption was more important with asphaltenes flocculated in bulk and corresponded to a Freundlich isotherm mechanism. The high adsorbed amount of phenols suggests possible migration of phenols through the loose asphaltene structure. Isotherms observed with the silica coated by asphaltenes showed that adsorption occurs in two stages corresponding probably to two different organizations of solute molecules at the surface. Les isothermes d' adsorption du phénol et du 4-chlorophénol en solution dans l'eau sur des asphaltènes floculés en masse et sur des asphaltènes déposés sur de la silice ont été déterminés par analyse chromatographique frontale à , , et K. L' adsorption sur des asphaltènes floculés en masse était la plus importante avec des isothermes correspondant à un mécanisme de Freundlich. La quantité élevée de phénols adsorbés suggère une migration possible des molécules du phénol à travers la structure peu compacte des asphaltènes. Les isothermes observés dans le cas de silice tapissée d'asphaltènes ont montré que l' adsorption se produit en deux étapes correspondant probablement à deux organisations différentes des molécules de soluté à la surface. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorophenols in earthworms, in relation to bioavailability in soil. The acute toxicity of five chlorophenols for two earthworm species was determined in two sandy soils differing in organic matter content and the results were compared with adsorption data. Adsorption increased with increasing organic matter content of the soils, but for tetra- and pentachlorophenol was also influenced by soil pH. Earthworm toxicity was significantly higher in the soil with a low level of organic matter. This difference disappeared when LC50 values were recalculated to concentrations in soil solution using adsorption data. Eisenia fetida andrei showed LC50 values lower than those of Lumbricus rubellus although bioaccumulation was generally higher in the latter species. Toxicity and bioaccumulation based on soil solution concentrations increased with increasing lipophilicity of the chlorophenols. The present results indicate that the toxicity and bioaccumulation and therefore the bioavailability of chlorophenols in soil to earthworms are dependent on the concentration in soil solution and can be predicted on the basis of adsorption data. Both the toxicity of and bioaccumulation data on chlorophenols in earthworms demonstrated surprisingly good agreement with those on chlorophenols in fish. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse. E-mail: xlchai mail. The adsorption of phenol, 2- chlorophenol , 4- chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2- chlorophenol , 4- chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic. Presence of chlorophenols in drinking water could be hazardous to human health. Optimization and computational modeling of experimental conditions of adsorption lead to understanding the mechanisms of this process and to creating the efficient experimental equipment. In the current study, we investigated multi-walled carbon nanotubes by means of density functional theory DFT approach. This is applied to study selected types of interactions between six solvents, five types of nanotubes, and Caracterización del proceso de adsorción de 3-cloro fenol desde solución acuosa sobre carbon activado por calorimetria de inmersión Characterization of 3- chlorophenol adsorption process from aqueous solution on activated carbon by immersion calorimetry. Full Text Available The immersion enthalpy of activated carbon in 3- chlorophenol solutions, of mg L-1, is determined at different pH values between 3 and 11 with results between The 3- chlorophenol adsorbed quantities on the activated carbon during the calorimetric experience, are between 1. The 3- chlorophenol adsorbed quantity and the immersion enthalpy decrease by increasing of the pH solution, while increasing the adsorbed quantity increases the immersion enthalpy value. Full Text Available In this study, graphene oxide was used as a nanostructured adsorbent with properties supposedly better than other common adsorbents to remove 4- chlorophenol from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, graphene oxide was initially synthesized using the Hummer's method and x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were employed to identify its morphology and structure. The variables involved in the absorption process including 4- chlorophenol initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, and pH were investigated based on the one-factor-at-a-time method. It was found that the adsorption process reached equilibrium in 20 minutes. A dosage of 0. The adsorption isotherm was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model and the values for R2 and RL were recorded as 0. Being a low cost and highly efficient process, the adsorption process using graphene oxide adsorbent may be recommended for the reduction and elimination of pollutants in the environment, especially those in aqueous solutions. Removal of 4- chlorophenol from synthetic wastewater by the granulated graphene oxide nano particles. Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: 4- chlorophenols one of the most common pollutants in wastewater is generated from the chemical and petrochemical industries. It is due to the presence of chloride and benzene ring is resistant to biodegradation. In this study, the use of granulated graphene oxide nano particles as an adsorbent nanostructure with better properties than other adsorbents for Removal of 4- chlorophenol from aqueous solution were investigated Methods: This research was implemented during the year where the Granules of Graphene oxide nanoparticles were prepared using sodium silicate and X-ray diffraction techniques and electron microscope were used to identify the morphology and structure of the adsorbent of. Finally, the data fitness with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were showed. Results: Adsorption process reached to equilibrium after 20 minutes. Conclusion: Absorbed process by the granules of Graphene oxide nanoparticles is low-cost high-efficiency and it could used to reduce and eliminate environmental pollutants particularly aqueous solutions. Full Text Available Application of saw dust for the removal of an anionic dye, tartrazine, from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The experiments were carried out in batch mode. Effect of the parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye was studied. Maximum adsorption of dye was achieved at pH 3. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin—Radushkevich isotherm models. The Langmuir adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is found to be 4. Kinetic modeling of the process of removal was carried out and the process of removal was found to follow a pseudo second order model and the value of rate constant for adsorption process was calculated as 2. Full Text Available The phenolic compounds are known as priority pollutants, even in low concentrations, as a result of their toxicity and non-biodegradability. For this reason, strict standards have been established for them. In addition, chlorophenols are placed in the 38th to 43th in highest priority order of toxic pollutants. As a consequence, contaminated water or wastewaters with phenolic compounds have to be treated before discharging into the receiving water. Analysis of the response surface quadratic model signified that the experiments are accurate and the model is highly significant. Moreover, the synthetic adsorbent is highly efficient in removing of 4- chlorophenol. Catalytic wet air oxidation of chlorophenols over supported ruthenium catalysts. Among the investigated noble metals, Ru appeared to be the best to promote the CWAO of CPs as far as incipient-wetness impregnation was used to prepare all the catalysts. The position of the chlorine substitution on the aromatic ring was also shown to have a significant effect on the CP reactivity in the CWAO over 3 wt. One reason could be the higher adsorption of 2-CP on the catalyst surface. Further investigations suggested that 3 wt. Additionally, the conversion of 2-CP was demonstrated to increase with the initial pH of the 2-CP solution. The dechlorination reaction is promoted at higher pH. In all cases, the adsorption of the reactants and the reaction intermediates was shown to play a major role. All parameters that would control the molecule speciation in solution or the catalyst surface properties would have a key effect. Sorption of chlorophenols from aqueous solution by granular activated carbon, filter coal, pine and hardwood. Wood and coal, as low-cost sorbents, have been evaluated as an alternative to commercial granular activated carbon GAC for chlorophenol removal. The data fitted a pseudo-second-order model. Sorption capacity data showed that GAC had a high sorption capacity mg g -1 compared with other sorbents 3. However, wood and coal had a greater sorption capacity per unit surface area than GAC. Sorption equilibrium data was best predicted using a Freundlich adsorption model. The sorption capacity for all sorbents was 2- chlorophenol coal than the other sorbents. The results showed that pine, hardwood and filter coal can be used as sorbent materials for the removal of chlorophenol from water; however, kinetic considerations may limit the application of filter coal. Reductive dehalogenation of chlorophenols by Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB Reductive dehalogenation of chlorophenols has been reported in undefined anaerobic cultures but never before in an anaerobic pure culture. We found that the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1 reductively dehalogenates pentachlorophenol PCP and other chlorophenols. The maximum rate of PCP dechlorination observed was 54 mu mol of Cl- h-1 g of protein Dehalogenation was catalyzed by living cells, and formate served as a required electron donor. Generally, more highly chlorinated phenol congeners were more readily dechlorinated, and 3- chlorophenol was not dehalogenated. A novel mixed-mode adsorbent was prepared by functionalizing silica with tris 2-aminoethyl amine and 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde as the main mixed-mode scaffold due to the presence of the plentiful amino groups and benzene rings in their molecules. The adsorption mechanism was probed with acidic, natural and basic compounds, and the mixed hydrophobic and ion-exchange interactions were found to be responsible for the adsorption of analytes. The suitability of dispersive solid-phase extraction was demonstrated in the determination of chlorophenols in environmental water. Several parameters, including sample pH, desorption solvent, ionic strength, adsorbent dose, and extraction time were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the proposed dispersive solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography showed good linearity range and acceptable limits of detection 0. Notably, the higher extraction recoveries The proposed method might be potentially applied in the determination of trace chlorophenols in real water samples. KGaA, Weinheim. Full Text Available Background and purpose: The 2- chlorophenol 2-CP and 4- chlorophenol 4-CP are phenolic compounds which may have adverse effects on human and environment. Therefore, removing these compounds from water and wastewater is necessary. Then it was treated with 0. Results: The solute removed increases as contact time rises. The equilibrium time for 2-CP and 4-CP is 90 and 75, respectively. The removal efficiency of 4-CP is more than 2-CP. An increase in initial concentration of both compounds can lead to decrease of their removal efficiency. The optimum pH to remove both compounds is 5. The equilibrium data matched best on Freundlich isotherm and the adsorption kinetic model follows pseudo-second model. Conclusion: The results indicated that Azolla is an effective adsorbent for removing 2-CP and 4-CP from water and wastewater. Of the system chrome hexavalent chlorophenol. The effect is analyzed in order to determine the operation conditions to reach the highest degradation levels possible. The analyzed variables were pH, concentration of catalyst TiO 2 , time of recirculation and the relation of initial concentrations among polluting agents. The factor that most influences the levels of removal reached is the pH, which has a different effect for each of the pollutants. This implies that, theoretically, you cannot adopt a unique group of operation parameters to favor the degradation of both however, in the practice; high levels of degradation of both pollutants are obtained in the optimal point of operation of the chrome. It is also observed that the catalyst concentration does not influence the degradation of the polluting agents significantly, at least for the initial concentrations studied. The recirculation time is closely related to the kinetics of degradation of each polluting agent. Elevated degradation levels are reached in a short time for 4- chlorophenol , while more prolonged recirculation times are required for hexavalent chromium. The relation of initial concentrations of the polluting agents also exerts an opposite effect on the degradation levels reached for each polluting agent; the hexavalent chromium reduction is favored with high initial concentrations of 4- chlorophenol , whereas the oxidation of 4- chlorophenol is favored with high initial hexavalent chromium concentrations, which suggests some synergy between the oxidation-reduction reactions of 4- chlorophenol and hexavalent chromium. Chlorinated organic compounds, especially chlorophenols are well-known water priority pollutant family due to their toxicity and potential health hazard. As biological treatment processes for the degradation of chlorinated phenols have not been effective, various technologies and processes such as activated carbon adsorption [1], chemical oxidation[2], have been conventionally attempted for phenolic waster treatment. Recently, advanced oxidation processes AOPs have attracted a great deal of attention for treatment of phenolic wastewater, among these chemical oxidation ultraviolet UV oxidation system[3], anodic oxidation and indirect electro-oxidation have been widely studied[4]. Though a number of researchers worked on the degradation of chlorophenol by UV radiation or electrochemical processes, there are few reports on both methods for organic wastewater treatment. If these two processes can operate in harmony, the degradation efficiency would be enhanced. In vitro and in silico investigations of the binding interactions between chlorophenols and trypsin. Wang, Yan-Qing, E-mail: wyqing76 Since there still lacks studies on molecular interactions of chlorophenols with trypsin, one major binding target of many exogenous environmental pollutants, the binding interactions between five chlorophenols , 2-CP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TCP and PCP and trypsin were characterized by the combination of multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. The chlorophenols bind at the one main site of trypsin and the binding induces the changes of microenvironment and global conformations of trypsin. Our results offer insights into the binding mechanism of chlorophenols with trypsin and provide important information for possible toxicity risk of chlorophenols to human health. Catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and 4- chlorophenol in the presence of modified activated carbons. The objective of this research was to examine the heterogeneous catalytic decomposition of H 2 O 2 and 4- chlorophenol 4-CP in the presence of activated carbons modified with chemical pretreatments. The decomposition of H 2 O 2 was suppressed significantly by the change of surface properties including the decreased pH pzc modified with oxidizing agent and the reduced active sites occupied by the adsorption of 4-CP. The apparent reaction rate of H 2 O 2 decomposition was dominated by the intrinsic reaction rates on the surface of activated carbon rather than the mass transfer rate of H 2 O 2 to the solid surface. By the detection of chloride ion in suspension, the reduction of 4-CP was not only attributed to the advanced adsorption but also the degradation of 4-CP. The catalytic activity toward 4-CP for the activated carbon followed the inverse sequence of the activity toward H 2 O 2 , suggesting that acidic surface functional group could retard the H 2 O 2 loss and reduce the effect of surface scavenging resulting in the increase of the 4-CP degradation efficiency. Few effective radicals were expected to react with 4-CP for the strong effect of surface scavenging, which could explain why the degradation rate of 4-CP observed in this study was so slow and the dechlorination efficiency was independent of the 4-CP concentration in aqueous phase. Influence of the activated carbon nature and the aqueous matrix in the pesticides adsorption ; Influencia de la naturaleza del carbon activo y la matriz acuosa en la adsorcion de plaguicidas. The aim of this research work is to study the effectiveness of the activated carbon adsorption to remove 44 organic pesticides controlled systematically in waters of the Ebro river basin. In general, the adsorption capacity of the vegetal PAC is higher than of the mineral one when experiments are carried out with pesticides dissolved in distilled water. However, the presence of organic matter in natural water decreases the adsorption power of the vegetal PAC, being the behaviour of both PAC similar. Author 11 refs. A strain of photosynthetic bacteria named PSB-1D with degradation of o- chlorophenol 2-CP was isolated and screened from the shallow substrate sludge in downstream side of the sewage outfall of an insecticide factory. The experiments results of relationship between PSB-1D growth and o- chlorophenol degradation showed that the degradation rate of o- chlorophenol was up to The main environmental factors including way of illumination and oxygen, initial pH, cultural temperature, illumination intensity had distinctly influenced on the o- chlorophenol degradation with PSB-1D. The results showed that the optimum conditions were as following: an anaerobic light, pH 7. Under that cultural condition, the degradation rate of o- chlorophenol could reach to The degradation kinetic data fitted the Andrews model well. In addition, the biodegradation process of o- chlorophenol can be well described by enzymatic reaction of high concentration inhibition, with the maximum substrate utilization rate 0. La adsorción con carbón activado se plantea como una opción atractiva para la remoción de estos contaminantes. Sin embargo, existen dudas acerca del efecto de las propiedades químicas superficiales del carbón activado sobre la capacidad de adsorción de estos compuestos. Para el estudio se utilizó carbón activado granular Filtrasorb modificado con el objetivo de obtener carbones con diferentes propiedades químicas superficiales. Las series de carbones activados fueron obtenidas por pretratamiento por desoxigenación y por oxidación con ozono a diferentes tiempos de contacto. El incremento en la concentración de los grupos oxigenados superficiales produce una disminución en la capacidad de adsorción de los tres contaminantes ensayados. Benzothiazoles, such as benzothiazole BT, 2-hydroxybenzothiazole OHBT, and 2-methylbenzothiazole MeBT are toxic and poorly biodegradable organic compounds, frequently present in wastewater from rubber related applications. Activated carbon adsorption has been identified as an attractive treatment to removing those contaminants. This paper presents experimental results on the effect of chemical surface. Radiation-induced degradation of chlorophenols in aqueous solution. Radiation processing is a promising technology for applications in environmental protection, which includes wastewater treatment, micro-polluted drinking water treatment and the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various toxic and nonbiodegradable pollutants, municipal sewage and sludge disinfection, and flue gas desulfuration, etc. Google Compute fue una versión de la barra de herramientas de Google que permitía la participación en un proyecto de computación distribuida para ayudar a investigaciones científicas. Esto permitía colaborar con Folding home , una organización sin fines de lucro que investiga la estructura de las proteínas , para poder entender y curar muchas enfermedades. Google Compute permitía al usuario del computador a ayudar a solucionar problemas científicos cuando de otra forma el computador estaría inactivo. A simple, one-bowl recipe for whenever you need a quick dessert! Hoy traigo una receta tipica navideña, un cake de Navidad espectacular. 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Results suggested that there was a dosage-dependent pathway in the direct ozonation of 2- chlorophenol. Bioconcentration of atrazine and chlorophenols into roots and shoots of rice seedlings.

Accumulation of o- chlorophenol CP2,4-dichlorophenol DCPand atrazine ATRas single and mixed Búsqueda de citas barras thm, from hydroponic solutions into roots and shoots of rice seedlings was studied following h exposure of the plant Búsqueda de citas barras thm. As single contaminants at low levels, the observed bioconcentration factors BCFs of CP and DCP with roots approximated the equilibrium values according to the partition-limited model.

The BCF of atrazine with roots was about half the partition limit for unknown reasons. As mixed contaminants at low levels, the BCFs with both roots and shoots were comparable with those for the single contaminants; at high levels, the BCFs generally decreased because of the enhanced mixed-contaminant phytotoxicity, as manifested by the greatly reduced plant transpiration rate.

He Di, E-mail: hedy hotmail. Guerin, V. Studies have shown chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols had a good correlation with TEQ, suggesting Biological and photocatalytic treatment integrated click here separation and reuse of titanium dioxide on the removal of chlorophenols in tap water. We investigated biological, photocatalytic, and combination of biological and photocatalytic treatments in order to remove Búsqueda de citas barras thm mixture of 2- Búsqueda de citas barras thm2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in tap water total: mg L -1each: 25 mg L The removal of chlorinated phenols was conducted with a flow biological treatment and a circulative flow photocatalytic treatment under black light and sunlight irradiations integrated with titanium dioxide separation and reuse.

The combined biological-photocatalytic treatment significantly shortened the degradation and mineralization time of both the biological treatment and the photocatalytic treatment. The removed chlorophenols per hour by the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was After a large portion of biodegradable 2- chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-trichlorophenol were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenolsbiorecalcitrant pentachlorophenol, and biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment.

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Since titanium dioxide particles in tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, Búsqueda de citas barras thm combined treatment can be operated by integrating with the titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The TiO 2 particles were recovered and reused at least three times without significantly decreasing the removal efficiency.

Suryaman, Dhanus, E-mail: dhanussuryaman yahoo. Thamrin No.

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Formulation and stabilization of an Arthrobacter strain with good storage stability and 4- chlorophenol -degradation activity for bioremediation. Bjerketorp, Joakim; Röling, Wilfred F. Chlorophenols are widespread and of environmental concern due to their toxic and carcinogenic properties.

Development of less costly and less technically challenging remediation methods are needed; therefore, Búsqueda de citas barras thm developed a formulation based on micronized vermiculite that, when air-dried, resulted. Preparation of activated carbons from unburnt coal in bottom ash with KOH activation for liquid-phase adsorption. In this work, unburnt coal UC in bottom ash from coal-fired power plants was soaked in KOH solution and activated for 1 h at degrees C.

The yield of activated carbons varied from Pore properties of these activated carbons including the BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized based on N 2 adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacities of methylene blue, acid blue 74, and 4- chlorophenol were obtained to be 2. Moreover, the adsorption kinetics could be see more described by the Elovich equation. Copyright Published by Elsevier Ltd.

In this visit web page, a procedure based on solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is proposed to determine chlorophenols in water without derivatization. The following chlorophenols are studied: 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. The accuracy trueness and precision of the procedure was assessed.

This procedure has been applied to river water samples. Preparation of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous polycysteine film and application in sensitive detection of Búsqueda de citas barras thm chlorophenol. After removing polystyrene template, a three-dimensionally ordered macroporous 3-DOM polycysteine film was achieved, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy measurements. The application of 3-DOM polycysteine film in electrochemical detection of 4- chlorophenol was studied.

Due to ordered porous structures, the 3-DOM polycysteine film-modified GCE displayed signal enhancement effects, and enhanced the oxidation peak currents of 4- chlorophenol. As a result, a sensitive Búsqueda de citas barras thm method was developed for the detection of 4- chlorophenoland the detection limit was 1.

This new method was used to detect 4- chlorophenol in water samples, and the value of recovery was over the range Búsqueda de citas barras thm Sorption of 2- Chlorophenol from aqueous solutions by functionalized cross-linked polymers.

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They were morphological and chemically characterized using different techniques. The extraction capacity of the polymers was evaluated using 2- chlorophenol. Comparison of different chlorophenols degradation in aqueous solutions by gamma irradiation under reducing conditions.

This confirmed that the number and position of chlorine atoms existing in the benzene ring have significant impact on dechlorination and decomposition of CPs. Photoelectron and UV absorption spectroscopy for determination of electronic configurations of negative molecular ions: Chlorophenols. The photoelectron and UV absorption spectra of p- m- and o- chlorophenols in the gas phase have been obtained.

Búsqueda de citas barras thm each excited state a dominant transition was found. It has been shown that the energies of these singlet transitions correlate with the energy differences between the ground-state molecular orbitals participating in them. Using the UV spectra interpretation, the electronic states of Búsqueda de citas barras thm read article detected earlier for the same compounds by means of the resonant electron capture mass-spectrometry have been determined.

The combination of high voltage pulse discharge and ozonation as an advanced oxidation technology was used to investigate the degradation of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP in water. The factors that affect the rate of degradation were discussed. The 1. The degradation of 4-CP was investigated as a function of the ozone concentration, radical scavenger and electrode distance. Búsqueda de citas barras thm

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Mayo Novedades Excel Ya hemos actualizado el curso de Excel incorporando las novedades introducidas en , de esta forma el curso sirve tanto para la versión de Excel como para la versión de Excel , ya que los cambios son pocos y todo lo que funciona en la versión de siguie haciéndolo en la versión de También hay otros pequeños cambios que también citamos. Ir a las novedades.. Enero Noviembre Ir al curso.. Febrero Diciembre Septiembre Sin embargo, así como hay software de Microsoft para servidores, también hay software libre para PC's Ir al artículo.. Nuevo artículo sobre controles de formulario en Excel En este artículo introducimos los controles de formulario en Excel. Abril Methods: This experimental and pilot-scale study was carried out using two chemical batch reactors; one of the reactors equipped with UV lamps and the other was on the hot plate. Results: Iron, UV, the initial pH of the solution, persulfate concentration have considerable effects on the elimination of 2- chlorophenol in both processes. In both processes, the maximum elimination occurred in acidic conditions. The elimination efficiency was increased by increasing the concentration of 2- chlorophenol and UV intensity, and also by decreasing the concentration of persulfate and iron. Conclusion: Sulfate radicals produced from activated persulfate ions with hot-Fe ion and UV radiation have significant impact on the removal of 2- chlorophenol. Formation of industrial mixed culture biofilm in chlorophenol cultivated medium of microbial fuel cell. The formation of microbial biofilm while maintaining the electricity output is a challenging topic in microbial fuel cell MFC studies. This MFC critical factor becomes more significant when handling with industrial wastewater which normally contains refractory and toxic compounds. This study explores the formation of industrial mixed culture biofilm in chlorophenol cultivated medium through observing and characterizing microscopically its establishment on MFC anode surface. The mixed culture was found to develop its biofilm on the anode surface in the chlorophenol environment and established its maturity and dispersal stages with concurrent electricity generation and phenolic degradation. The mixed culture biofilm engaged the electron transfer roles in MFC by generating current density of 1. The results support further research especially on hazardous wastewater treatment using a benign and sustainable method. Adsorbed states of chlorophenol on Cu and controlled switching of single-molecule junctions. Okuyama, H. A molecular junction of substituted benzene chlorophenol is fabricated and controlled by using a scanning tunneling microscope STM. Prior to the junction formation, the bonding geometry of the molecule on the surface is characterized by STM and electron energy loss spectroscopy EELS. EELS shows that the OH group of chlorophenol is dissociated on Cu and that the molecule is bonded nearly flat to the surface via an O atom, with the Cl group intact. The asymmetric bonding motifs of the molecule to the electrodes allow for reversible control of the junction. Gamma radiation treatment of pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2- chlorophenol in water. G CI- is always much higher than the corresponding G -PCP ,this means that some primary radiolytic products are unstable during post irradiation. PCP is much easier to be decomposed under irradiation than that of simple chlorophenol. Some stable radiolytic intermediates were be detected. Primary analysis reveals some quinones among the final products with toxicity that remains unclear. It is recommended to bubble ozone simultaneously when radiation or electron beam treat CPs contaminating water. Evaluation of toxicity and genotoxicity of 2- chlorophenol on bacteria, fish and human cells. Based on the existing knowledge and in order to move a step forward, the purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic and mainly the genotoxic effects of 2-CP using a combination of bioassays. The tests include the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and micronuclei induction in the erythrocytes of Carassius auratus as well as in cultured human lymphocytes. The results obtained reveal that 2-CP is able to induce dose-dependent toxic and genotoxic effects on the selected tested concentrations under the specific experimental conditions. Full Text Available The photocatalytic process is a useful method for the effective removal of phenolic compounds. Fly ash obatined from the Thermal Power Plant in Zarand, Kerman, was initially washed with sulfuric acid before being oxidized with potassium permanganate. The mixture of modified fly ash and TiO2 was then used for the removal of ortho- chlorophenol in the presence of UV light and the factors involved in the removal process were optimized. It was, further, observed that removal efficiency with a modified fly ash to TiO2 ratio of rose to The ortho- chlorophenol removal efficiency in real wastewater from the Coal Wash Plant in Zarand was recorded at Based on the results obtained from simultaneous use of modified fly ash and TiO2, the proposed method may be recommended for industrial applications. The oxidation rate was influenced by many factors, such as the pH value, the amount of hydrogen peroxide, irradiation time and microwave power. The degradation of p- chlorophenol by different types of oxidation processes followed first order rate decay kinetics. The rate constants were 0. The radiolysis of aqueous 4- chlorophenol 4-CP by gamma radiation in the presence of air and ozone was investigated. Some primary influencing factors such as irradiation time and initial 4-CP concentration were also discussed. The results showed that the degradation of 4- chlorophenol could described by first-order reaction kinetic model. There is potential for combination of irradiation with ozonation, which can remarkably reduce the irradiation dose increase the degradation efficiency of 4-CP. Photodegradation was carried out in a batch system by irradiating a suspension of TiO2, p- chlorophenol , and Fe III as ionic or colloidal forms, using UV lamp for a period of time accompanied by magnetic stirring. Concentration of photodegraded p- chlorophenol was calculated by subtracting the initial concentration with that of undegraded p- chlorophenol. Concentration of undegraded p- chlorophenol was determined by gas chromatography. In this study, TiO2 mass and the photodegradation time were optimized. The research results showed that the presence of Fe III ions improved the effectiveness of photocatalytical degradation of p- chlorophenol , which was proportional to the concentrations of Fe III ion. In contrast, the increasing mass of Fe OH3 led to a decrease in the degree of p- chlorophenol photodegradation. Furthermore, it was observed that increasing pH of the solution resulted in a decrease in the photodegradation of p- chlorophenol. This phenomena may be due to the different species of TiO2 available at the surface of photocatalyst and of ionic Fe III and colloidal Fe OH3 in the solution resulted from the pH alteration. The highest photodegradation degree, ca. BiOI nanoplates were deposited upon a film of TiO 2 nanoparticles derived from a commercial source using a simple room temperature sequential ionic layer adsorption and reaction SILAR method. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopies have been used to confirm the crystal phase, chemical states of key elements and morphology of the BiOI nanoplate-TiO 2 composites. The visible-light sensitisation effect of BiOI was then proven by examination of the photocatalytic degradation of the colourless organic pollutant 4- chlorophenol , showing a large enhancement over an equivalent TiO 2 film. The enhanced photoactivity of nanosized Bi2WO6 catalyst for the degradation of 4- chlorophenol. Nanosized Bi 2 WO 6 catalyst exhibited the enhanced photoactivity for the degradation of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP under visible irradiation compared to the sample prepared by high-temperature solid reaction. The photoactivity of the catalyst was sensitive to pH variation of the suspension. Nanosized Bi 2 WO 6 catalyst showed the highest activity at pH 7. After three recycling runs for the photodegradation of 4-CP, the activity of the catalyst did not show any significant loss, suggesting that the catalyst was stable under visible irradiation. Los mecanismos de influencia en el liderazgo. Influence of humic acids of different origins on oxidation of phenol and chlorophenols by permanganate. The influences of humic acids HAs of different origins, including two commercial HAs, three soil HAs and one aquatic HA, on phenols oxidation by permanganate were studied. Moreover, the commercial HA Shanghai could accelerate the oxidation of different chlorophenols CP significantly under neutral condition. Solar efficiency of a new deposited titania photocatalyst. Chlorophenol , pesticide and dye removal applications. Senes Km. A specially designed titania photocatalyst was prepared by coating Ahlstrom non-woven paper, used as a flexible photocatalytic support, with Millennium PC anatase. At the same time, a new solar photoreactor STEP was designed based on the multi-step cascade falling-film principle to ensure good exposure to sunlight and good oxygenation of the effluent to be treated. Several types of reactants were treated: 4- chlorophenol as a model organic pollutant; formetanate, a widely used pesticide in horticulture; a mixture of pesticides used in vineyards; and indigo carmine IC and Congo red CR , which are complex multifunctional dye molecules. Each reaction was performed simultaneously in a solar CPC slurry photoreactor and in the STEP photoreactor under identical solar exposure to better evaluate and validate the results obtained. In contrast, both dyes required longer treatment in STEP experiments. This new system, in which the final tedious filtration can actually be avoided, constitutes a good alternative to slurries. Full Text Available The voluntary or accidental release of chemical compounds in the environment is a major cause of pollution of natural waters. Most of chlorophenols are toxic and hardly biodegradable and are difficult to remove from the environment. The objective of this work is to test the activity photocatalytic of natural iron oxide NIO in the photodegradation of 2- chlorophenol 2-CP. The analysis chromatographic with HPLC of solutions exposed under UV irradiation revealed that the degradation of 2-CP was negligible under the condition of using only natural iron oxide. The effect of wavelength on photoreactivity of NIO was also investigated in this process: at high wavelength thus at low energy the efficiency of degradation is important. We have also investigated the activation of NIO by hydrogen peroxide and oxalic acid, The results showed that the photodegradation of 2-CP under UVA irradiation could be enhanced greatly in the presence of oxalate. The use of 2. Kinetics of the degradation of 2- chlorophenol by ozonation at pH 3. Prediction of byproduct distribution during ozonation is of importance to the design of treatment process. In this study, degradation products in direct ozonation of 2- chlorophenol in aqueous solution were identified by employing the chemical derivatization technique, specifically, silylation. Transient distribution of degradation products, in a semi-batch reactor under three ozone dosages were identified and determined by HPLC analysis. An empirical degradation pathway was proposed to describe the ozonation reaction. A mathematical protocol consisting of 11 equations and 12 rate constants was developed to solve and optimize the kinetic parameters. Modeling results revealed that the empirical pathway was capable of predicting the ozonation reaction at the beginning phase under a higher ozone dosage e. The degree of agreement between predicted and experimental data decreased as the ozone dosage decreased to 1. Results suggested that there was a dosage-dependent pathway in the direct ozonation of 2- chlorophenol. Bioconcentration of atrazine and chlorophenols into roots and shoots of rice seedlings. Accumulation of o- chlorophenol CP , 2,4-dichlorophenol DCP , and atrazine ATR , as single and mixed contaminants, from hydroponic solutions into roots and shoots of rice seedlings was studied following h exposure of the plant roots. As single contaminants at low levels, the observed bioconcentration factors BCFs of CP and DCP with roots approximated the equilibrium values according to the partition-limited model. The BCF of atrazine with roots was about half the partition limit for unknown reasons. As mixed contaminants at low levels, the BCFs with both roots and shoots were comparable with those for the single contaminants; at high levels, the BCFs generally decreased because of the enhanced mixed-contaminant phytotoxicity, as manifested by the greatly reduced plant transpiration rate. He Di, E-mail: hedy hotmail. Guerin, V. Studies have shown chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols had a good correlation with TEQ, suggesting Biological and photocatalytic treatment integrated with separation and reuse of titanium dioxide on the removal of chlorophenols in tap water. We investigated biological, photocatalytic, and combination of biological and photocatalytic treatments in order to remove a mixture of 2- chlorophenol , 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in tap water total: mg L -1 , each: 25 mg L The removal of chlorinated phenols was conducted with a flow biological treatment and a circulative flow photocatalytic treatment under black light and sunlight irradiations integrated with titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The combined biological-photocatalytic treatment significantly shortened the degradation and mineralization time of both the biological treatment and the photocatalytic treatment. The removed chlorophenols per hour by the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was After a large portion of biodegradable 2- chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-trichlorophenol were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenols , biorecalcitrant pentachlorophenol, and biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment. Since titanium dioxide particles in tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined treatment can be operated by integrating with the titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The TiO 2 particles were recovered and reused at least three times without significantly decreasing the removal efficiency. Suryaman, Dhanus, E-mail: dhanussuryaman yahoo. Thamrin No. Formulation and stabilization of an Arthrobacter strain with good storage stability and 4- chlorophenol -degradation activity for bioremediation. Bjerketorp, Joakim; Röling, Wilfred F. Chlorophenols are widespread and of environmental concern due to their toxic and carcinogenic properties. Development of less costly and less technically challenging remediation methods are needed; therefore, we developed a formulation based on micronized vermiculite that, when air-dried, resulted. Preparation of activated carbons from unburnt coal in bottom ash with KOH activation for liquid-phase adsorption. In this work, unburnt coal UC in bottom ash from coal-fired power plants was soaked in KOH solution and activated for 1 h at degrees C. The yield of activated carbons varied from Pore properties of these activated carbons including the BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized based on N 2 adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacities of methylene blue, acid blue 74, and 4- chlorophenol were obtained to be 2. Moreover, the adsorption kinetics could be suitably described by the Elovich equation. Copyright Published by Elsevier Ltd. In this work, a procedure based on solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is proposed to determine chlorophenols in water without derivatization. The following chlorophenols are studied: 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. The accuracy trueness and precision of the procedure was assessed. This procedure has been applied to river water samples. Preparation of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous polycysteine film and application in sensitive detection of 4- chlorophenol. After removing polystyrene template, a three-dimensionally ordered macroporous 3-DOM polycysteine film was achieved, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy measurements. The application of 3-DOM polycysteine film in electrochemical detection of 4- chlorophenol was studied. Due to ordered porous structures, the 3-DOM polycysteine film-modified GCE displayed signal enhancement effects, and enhanced the oxidation peak currents of 4- chlorophenol. As a result, a sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the detection of 4- chlorophenol , and the detection limit was 1. This new method was used to detect 4- chlorophenol in water samples, and the value of recovery was over the range from Sorption of 2- Chlorophenol from aqueous solutions by functionalized cross-linked polymers. They were morphological and chemically characterized using different techniques. The extraction capacity of the polymers was evaluated using 2- chlorophenol. Comparison of different chlorophenols degradation in aqueous solutions by gamma irradiation under reducing conditions. This confirmed that the number and position of chlorine atoms existing in the benzene ring have significant impact on dechlorination and decomposition of CPs. Photoelectron and UV absorption spectroscopy for determination of electronic configurations of negative molecular ions: Chlorophenols. The photoelectron and UV absorption spectra of p-, m-, and o- chlorophenols in the gas phase have been obtained. For each excited state a dominant transition was found. It has been shown that the energies of these singlet transitions correlate with the energy differences between the ground-state molecular orbitals participating in them. Using the UV spectra interpretation, the electronic states of molecular anions detected earlier for the same compounds by means of the resonant electron capture mass-spectrometry have been determined. The combination of high voltage pulse discharge and ozonation as an advanced oxidation technology was used to investigate the degradation of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP in water. The factors that affect the rate of degradation were discussed. The 1. The degradation of 4-CP was investigated as a function of the ozone concentration, radical scavenger and electrode distance. The rate of 4-CP degradation increases with an increase in ozone concentration and a decrease in the electrode distance from 20 mm to 10 mm. The presence of radical scavenger decreased the rate of 4-CP degradation. Herein we demonstrate a simplistic microwave assisted chemical precipitation approach regarding the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. As-prepared ZnO nanoparticles NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffractometry and scrutinized as photo-catalysts for degradation of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP under sunlight. The study substantiated that The nanocatalysts were recycled four times and still showed catalytic efficiency up to Rotating biological contractor treatment of 2-nitrophenol and 2- chlorophenol containing hazardous wastes. Rotating Biological Contactors RBCs have a number of advantages over other biological treatment systems. Another recipe from Mum's scribbled cookery notes. These Apple Blondie Bars are a perfect Autumn dessert that mixes apple pie and blondies. Yummy Apple Cake Bars with a large scoop of ice cream! Consultado el 16 de mayo de Consultado el 20 de mayo de Control de autoridades Proyectos Wikimedia Datos: Q.

The rate of 4-CP degradation increases with an increase in ozone concentration and a decrease in the electrode distance from 20 mm to 10 mm. The presence of radical scavenger decreased the rate of 4-CP degradation. Herein we demonstrate a simplistic microwave assisted chemical precipitation approach regarding the synthesis of zinc Búsqueda de citas barras thm nanoparticles. As-prepared ZnO nanoparticles NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffractometry and scrutinized as photo-catalysts for degradation of 4- chlorophenol 4-CP under sunlight.

The study substantiated that The nanocatalysts were recycled four times and still showed catalytic efficiency up to Rotating biological contractor treatment of 2-nitrophenol and 2- chlorophenol containing hazardous wastes. Rotating Biological Contactors RBCs have a number of advantages over other biological treatment systems.

For example, they can provide high treatment efficiencies of activated sludge systems with much lower energy inputs. Organic shock loads are handled well because large biomass is present. No bulking, foaming, or floating of sludge occurs and sludge has good settleability and dewaterability.

Another advantage of RBC systems is the minimal labor requirement for operation and maintenance. Even though RBC systems have these advantages, their acceptance was slow mainly due to operational problems with the earlier units such as shaft failures and the lack of considerable design and operation data. A review of literature shows that there is only limited information available on the continue reading treatment with RBCs.

Recently, there has been considerable contributions to the knowledge on RBC technology. However, information on the treatment of organic hazardous wastes using RBCs is still very limited.

This paper reports that a considerable number of studies on the biological treatment of organic hazardous compounds was sponsored by U. For example, an EPA sponsored study examined the effect of such compounds on the performance Búsqueda de citas barras thm activated sludge process. Bench-scale continuous-flow and batch units were used. Influent was settled municipal wastewater to which toxic compounds were added.

La receta es de Jamie Olivercocinero inglés de todos ya co These date squares are a childhood favorite. It's the last installment of the "Easiest Recipes Ever" series and I'm not lying when I say that this is literally the easiest chocolate brownies recipe I've ever seen! Veamos un ejemplo:. Wiley-Blackwell edita textos de caracter científico y técnico desde A Búsqueda de citas barras thm de su Wiley Online Library Journals se pueden descubrir las citas y referencias que reciben los artículos publicados en los diferentes títulos Búsqueda de citas barras thm gestiona.

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Es la base de datos que alimenta Scopus. Su contenido es multidisciplinar y los documentos se encuentran en pdf. Portal de Desarrollo Humano Local Sostenible. Real dragon ball z porn. My family can't get enough of these little treats and I love how simple they are. Easy Date Bars are date-filled oatmeal bar that are super Búsqueda de citas barras thm and easy to make.

Always a favorite! Another recipe from Mum's scribbled cookery notes. These Apple Blondie Bars are a perfect Autumn dessert that mixes apple pie and blondies. Yummy Apple Cake Bars with a large scoop of ice cream! A date filled bar with a chewy oatmeal crust. This is continue reading Búsqueda de citas barras thm recipe, which my whole family loves. Soft, chewy and dense blondie brownies with rich undertones of caramel, vanilla and toffee.

A simple, one-bowl recipe for whenever you need a quick dessert! Hoy traigo una receta tipica navideña, un cake de Navidad espectacular. La receta es de Jamie Olivercocinero inglés de todos ya co These date squares are a childhood favorite.

It's the last installment of the "Easiest Recipes Ever" series and I'm not lying when I say that this is literally the easiest chocolate brownies recipe I've ever seen! Our recipe for classic date squares is super easy and the best. No son un brownie, pero se le parecen mucho. Deliciosos cortaditos de limón con los que acompañar el café de la merienda.

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